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English Poetry Alfred Tennyson Ulysses Альфред Теннисон Улисс

Ulysses tennyson

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Ulysses Alfred, Lord Tennyson 1909-14 English Poetry III: From

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SparkNotes: Tennyson s Poetry: “Ulysses”

argument essay idea You’ve spent quite a bit of time in your English classes writing argumentative essays, and you’ve even gotten pretty good at writing on the topics your instructor assigns. But when it comes to choosing your own argumentative essay topics, you draw a blank. It’s not that there aren’t any good topics to ulysses tennyson, choose from, but you start over-thinking it, wondering if each topic is too cliche, overdone, or just not good enough. Chances are, all you need to do is relax and find a topic you’re passionate about and, of course, one that is debatable. Why Pick Debatable Argumentative Essay Topics?

Photo by David Hume Kennedy via Gerald R. Lord Famous Poems! Ford Library. The name of the essay says it all– argumentative . It would be a lot easier to write an essay on tennyson, something that people generally agree on, but that’s not really the lord poems point of an argumentative essay. Ulysses! It’s important to choose debatable argumentative essay topics because you need opposing points that you can counter with your own points. What In Networking! The world isn’t black and white–there are a lot of gray areas, which is good because that means there are a lot of topics you can choose from. I have listed 50 argumentative essay topics below, phrased as questions, to help get you started. I’ve separated the tennyson topics into five categories–legal, moral, social, media and metallurgy society family–and included a helpful link for ulysses tennyson each topic. Feel free to use the topics for your own essay, or as inspiration to create your own original topic. 10 Legal Argumentative Essay Topics. Argumentative essay topics about legal matters are a popular choice.

These types of topics can include laws that you would want to create, change or completely abolish. They can also discuss certain benefits or negative aspects of witches scene, existing laws. You don’t have to tennyson, get super technical with legal argumentative essays, but be sure to do your research on canal tragedy, what the current laws about your chosen topic actually say. After all, you don’t want to tennyson, suggest a changing a law that’s already been changed in the way you want. Should cigarettes and metallurgy society other tobacco products be outlawed? Should prostitution be legal? Do the benefits of medical marijuana justify its legality? Is the drinking age appropriate (should it be lower, higher, or stay the ulysses tennyson same)? Should nuclear weapons be outlawed worldwide? Should the United States put more restrictions on gun ownership and use? At what age should girls have access to birth control without the consent of byron famous poems, their parents?

Does outlawing controlled substances only ulysses tennyson, create a larger black market? Should corporations be granted personhood? In what situations, if any, does a woman have a right to an abortion? 10 Moral Argumentative Essay Topics. Moral argumentative essay topics are some of the easiest to get carried away with. They can cover a variety of moral dilemmas, from animal testing to metallurgy, the death penalty. These topics tend to be very debatable because everyone has different opinions–and justifications for ulysses tennyson those opinions–on what they think is metallurgy society right or wrong. If you’re talking about human or animal rights, and tennyson it’s something you’re very passionate about, it’s tempting to let your emotions take over.

While it’s good to be passionate in an argumentative essay, remember to keep your thoughts focused and origin of volleyball organized. It’s definitely worth your time to create an outline so you don’t stray off topic. Photo by John Snape via flickr. Is animal testing necessary? Should consumers buy items from countries that endorse child labor? Do patients have a right to die via physician-assisted suicide? Should children’s beauty pageants be banned?

Are nude photographs appropriate in museums that are open to ulysses tennyson, the public? Should schools and businesses give more incentives for people to do volunteer work? Are atheists less moral than theists? Does freedom of speech give people the right to use hate speech? Do people who commit heinous crimes deserve the death penalty? Do pre-employment drug tests infringe on origin, personal privacy rights? 10 Social Argumentative Essay Topics. Social argumentative essay topics tend to overlap with legal and moral topics, but deal more about how individuals act within society and tennyson what kinds of pressures society puts on individuals or groups of love, people. This is a pretty broad category, so there are a lot of topics to choose from and even more that you could create on your own.

If you get stuck on ulysses tennyson, which topic to macbeth, write about, consider something that personally affects you or someone close to you. This should make writing about ulysses, that topic come more naturally. Just be sure to rely on of volleyball, facts and not on personal anecdotes, which are more appropriate to the narrative essay realm. Is there too much pressure on teenagers to go to college? At what age should citizens be allowed to vote in tennyson, the United States? Should more rights be given to immigrants?

Can heterosexual men and women truly be friends with no hopes or expectations of anything more? In what case(s) could it be considered fair for a company to not hire a candidate who smokes cigarettes? Should the United States make English the official national language? Should women wear less revealing clothing in order to curb men’s catcalling? Do prisoners deserve the right to vote? Should there be a legal curfew for minors?

Can online dating replace meeting a person in historical metallurgy, real life? 10 Advertising and tennyson Media Argumentative Essay Topics. Advertising and the media have become nearly inseparable from society as a whole. Essays written on these topics can include how media (television, news, movies, magazines, social media, etc.) affects society, and what should be allowed to be seen or heard through media and advertisements. Inspiration to create your own advertising or media argumentative essay topics isn’t hard to find. Just turn on a television and don’t change the channel when the commercials come on.

Pay close attention to lord poems, all things electronic, and you’ll be sure to find something debatable about ulysses tennyson, what you see. Photo by Rod Allday via Wikimedia Commons. Should sex be allowed to be portrayed on prime time television? Where should networks draw the line for violence on television? Should news shows talk about in networking, celebrities? Do journalists have a duty to eliminate as much bias as possible? Is it acceptable for companies to tennyson, advertise in historical society, schools? In what situations should advertisements for alcohol and tennyson tobacco products be allowed? Should warnings and The Pros and Cons of an Independent Central Essay side effects be made more clear in advertisements? Is print advertising obsolete? Do TV shows and movies have the responsibility of being more diverse?

Are public service announcements effective? 10 Family Argumentative Essay Topics. Argumentative essay topics covering family life and values are abundant. That’s because every family is different. Rules in families vary on ulysses, a case-by-case basis, contrary to metallurgy society, laws that govern a state or nation. Because each family is different, it’s hard to generalize in these types of essays. However, if you look into research on child development and psychology, marital psychology, and personal stories from parents and their children, you can get enough information to make an argument for ulysses tennyson any of the historical society topics below (or for tennyson a topic of your own).

Photo by Eric Ward via Wikimedia Commons. Final Thoughts on witches scene macbeth, Choosing Argumentative Essay Topics. As you can see, there are a lot of debatable argumentative essay topics you can choose from tennyson (way more than are on this list). For more ideas, read 20 Persuasive Essay Topics to Help You Get Started. Once you’re ready to come up with a thesis, check out these Argumentative Thesis Statement Examples.

When you are picking your topic, keep in mind that it’s much easier to write about something that you already have interest in–even if you don’t know a whole lot about it. What! Researching the topic will allow you to learn more about what fascinates you, and if you pick something you actually like , writing the essay will be more enjoyable. If you’ve wrapped up your argument, but you think there may be a few holes in your logic, send your essay over to ulysses, the Kibin editors. They’ll help give you the winning edge in whatever you’re debating. Psst. 98% of Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays. About the Author.

Eden Meirow is a self-employed freelance writer with a passion for love canal English, history and education. You can find her on Google+. Thank you for these! I appreciate that you divided the topics into type! Awesome! Glad you found what you were looking for. Ulysses Tennyson! #128578; Hello Naomi, what will be a good Hook for Argumentative essay about anti immigrants. Scene! I want prove them wrong and show them posative side from tennyson immigrants, thanks for the help. Hi AbdulI#8217;m not sure *who you#8217;re proving wrong? However, if you are writing a pro-immigrant essay, I would suggest starting with an of volleyball emotional hook. A hook that makes the story of immigration a HUMAN story is a compelling story.

Thank you for the help and the quick feedback! Please give me an example. Is the hook on ulysses, the title or on repeater in networking, the body? Thanks. Tennyson! The hook is the first sentence of your intro paragraph. Hey, I have an arguementative assay due and I have NOOO idea what to do it on can u help? Btw I#8217;m 14 so it needs to be school appropriate.? Hiya so I think the important thing would be to of an, choose a topic that you are actually interested in. Ulysses! At 14, and sorry if I#8217;m stereotyping you due to your age, perhaps a good argument would be to discuss the effects of video games on young people. Lord Byron! Here is a great resource to help you: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/effects-of-video-games-essay-sources/ I looked @ the ideas but I#8217;m still not sure.

What would be a good resource for supporting the opinion that physician-assisted suicide is ulysses tennyson morally wrong? I#8217;m having a hard time choosing a new topic for my argumentative essay. I was writing on how smoking should be outlawed but my professor told me she couldn#8217;t help me on this and it was a hard topic to argue about. Can you please help. It sounds like your teacher wants you to get more specific than that topic (which, to be fair, is of volleyball pretty broad). A more specific version might be: In what case(s) could it be considered fair for a company to not hire a candidate who smokes cigarettes? Or you could argue that more cities should enact smoking bans which disallow smoking in our near public places (look at ulysses, laws in California and witches Colorado for example). I need to ulysses tennyson, write an argumentative research paper about 3000 words.

Do you have any suggestions for a topic that I can find so much things to of volleyball, write about? I hope that one of the 50 above topics will get you thinking about what you want to write about. Ulysses Tennyson! My biggest piece of advice is definitely choose a topic that you care about, otherwise you are really going to struggle getting 3000 words down. Witches Scene Macbeth! Think about the topics that get you fired up during your regular day-to-day lifemaybe you can turn one of those topics into an argument. Speaking of 3k words, here#8217;s a good post on making an ulysses tennyson essay longer (without adding useless fluff): https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-make-an-essay-longer/ I#8217;m sorry to hear that. Maybe you#8217;ll find this post to be helpful in your quest for the perfect topic: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/good-persuasive-essay-topics/ Same I have to do that. I need to lord byron famous, write 3 essays and I 5 days to do it need HELP and ulysses tennyson I#8217;m 15.

Hi Dysoneep that#8217;s a lot of essays in a short amount of time. You#8217;re going to want to stay organized. Check out this post with 7 different outline templates that you could use: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/7-essay-outline-templates-get-essay-going/ Thank you for that it really helps me. You#8217;re welcome. Thanks for what repeater in networking reading! Hi, I was hoping to get some advice on an argumentative essay. My argument is tennyson broad and about Self-harm and Suicide, how can I find a specific direction to follow it I only have 2 days to write a 6 page essay. Origin! Do you have any tips or advice to ulysses tennyson, help me specify my topic or where to even start?

Can you please help? Hi i need to write 7-10 page argumentive essay and i don#8217;t have any idea can you help me what is it good to write about? contact me.I do help students write their essay. I will appreciate. sweet! Thanks for scene macbeth the comment. Hi there. My name is Lisa. Do you need any help with your homework? I am available for help and I will be glad to help.

Contact me for non-plagiarized, well formatted researched work, and always on time. Thank you in advance. I have to ulysses tennyson, right a research essay that will end up over origin the course be a 7 to 8 page essay and tennyson I can not think of a topic it has to be arguable#8230;. Love Canal! Have any idea what topic would be good? The 50 topics in this post should lead you to something good. The trick is to choose a topic that you are interested in so that you have a chance to possibly even *enjoy the process of ulysses tennyson, researching and writing. Witches! Remember, an arguable topic means that you could conceivably argue both sides (or more than one side). This post covers writing an argumentative thesis statement and also has more topic ideas: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/thesis-statement-examples/ This is literally the same thing i#8217;m going thru for english 202.

It has to end up being 7 to 8 pages and it has to tennyson, be a argumentative research essay. Year 10 800 words essays and historical metallurgy society these wont make enough. Don#8217;t despair. You can do it. #128578; Hi Naomi. I am looking for help in ulysses tennyson, formulating a thesis (a good argument) for a 3000 word research paper on the following #8221; Discuss the of an Independent social and cognitive consequences on ulysses tennyson, bilingualism and multilingualism#8221; . Any assistance rendered would be greatly appreciated. Thank you #128578; A basic framework for your thesis statement will outline the points that you want to defend throughout your paper. It may look something like this: The social and cognitive consequences of bilingualism and multilingualism include CONSEQUENCE 1, CONSEQUENCE 2, and CONSEQUENCE 3. Origin! Or maybe you want to take it a step further and argue that biilingual is socially and cognitively BENEFICIAL, so your framework would be: The social and ulysses cognitive benefits of bilingualism and multilingualism are many and lord include BENEFIT 1, BENEFIT 2, and BENEFIT 3. Your first research goal would be to uncover the consequences (or benefits) that you can defend with evidence , perhaps you want to discuss research related to multilingualism and ulysses aging and how it 1) prevents cognitive decline 2) staves off Alzheimers and byron famous poems 3) something else you can find perhaps more social than cognitive here. Once you have the points you want to defend in ulysses, place, you can refine your thesis statement so that it is has a more organic structure than the list framework I provided. Love! Thank you so much ! Of course! Thanks for reading. #128578; Hi Naomi.

I have started writing the ulysses tennyson paper. However, I am having difficulties with the organization of origin, my paper. Is it possible that you can proof read what I have so far and ulysses give me tips on how to properly organize the essay? It would be greatly appreciated. Historical Metallurgy! It#8217;s fantastic that you understand the value of having someone proofread your essay.

While I can#8217;t do this for you (not enough time in my schedule), you have come to the right place. Our editors are available 24/7 to check your essay for organization, clarity, grammar and tennyson more. You can learn more about that service here: https://www.kibin.com/essay-editing-proofreading. Witches! I have to do 700-900 word essays a week and I loose my nerve a lot. Ulysses! but trust me, it can be worse#8230; Good luck on witches macbeth, your writing though!I#8217;m sure you need it more than me#8230; i have to do a 10-15 page essay single spaced. Pinterest tells me that if you want an ulysses tennyson essay to seem longer, highlight all the periods, and change the font size from 12 to 14. I can promise you that most professors are on to this trick!

If you go into an essay well-prepared, you should be able to hit your word count without resorting to tricks like this, which are often more time-consuming than doing a little extra writing in and Cons of an Independent Central Essay, the first place #128578; I am writing an 1800 minimum word essay and for some topics there will be enough you just have to be well prepared. So true! If you#8217;re armed with plenty of sources and make a solid outline to plan your paper, it#8217;s much easier to reach your target word count #128578; Here are the basic steps you need to take to execute an ulysses argumentative essay: 1) pick your topicthis post is a good place to start. 2) do your researchhttps://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/writing-a-research-paper/ 3) formulate a thesis statementhttps://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-a-thesis-statement/ 4) write an outlinehttps://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/argumentative-essay-outline/ 5) draft your paperhttps://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/essay-formatting-survival-guide/ 6) edit your paper https://www.kibin.com/essay-editing-proofreading. 7) turn it in and celebrate your accomplishment!

three claims right. Yes, three claims is a nice round number (in some cases you could do more or less, depending on the specific requirements and length of your paper). Hey, i Have to submit a 2000 word argumentative essay by tomorrow afternoon on inspiration vs infringement and so far I#8217;ve written only 200. Could you please tell me what all points i could include? Just saw this and it looks like #8220;tomorrow afternoon#8221; has arrived.

I hope that you were able to come up with some good points. This makes me think of Walt Disney and how all of his characters came from previously dreamed up characters (from Grimm and historical metallurgy society others), and how later on (in the 90s) Disney led the charge in tennyson, more restrictive copyright laws. Of Volleyball! That would be one case study I would use for a topic like this. That is tennyson awesome to hear. Thanks for your comment! thank you Naomi for The Pros Independent Essay this. hi Naomi, me and my partner have no idea on what are topic will be, based on tennyson, our courses. What Is A Repeater! I#8217;m studying entrepreneurship and she is studying computer science. it has been 2 months and yet we cannot come up with an idea on what will be our topic. please help us for tennyson we are desperate. we would be so thankful if you#8217;l help us a little bit. I#8217;m not quite sure what you are asking for. Are you trying to find a topic for lord a research paper that is related to both computer science and ulysses entrepreneurship? I hope so, because that is the question I#8217;m attempting to answer here. What you choose will largely depend on where your interests are. You two would do well to sit down and brainstorm a list of potential ideas and then do some preliminary research to see if you can find information to support your project.

For example, my initial brainstorm of topics might look like: -what role do robotics play in business? -what softwares are essential for running a scalable startup? -will emerging technologies lead to a jobless economy? -will emerging technologies lead to a new type of job market? -should computer science students be required to take business classes (since most startups require both tech savvy and business understanding)? Then I#8217;d do some initial research on my favorite two ideas to find out The Pros Independent Essay if any of them have enough material to support a full research paper. For example, I found this source http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/5673619/?reload=true that could support my last topic idea (computer sci students taking biz classes). I think that you may be struggling a bit because #8220;computer science#8221; and #8220;entrepreneurship#8221; or both broad disciplines that cover a variety of topics. You might find this post helpful for you to narrow down your idea: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-narrow-a-topic/ this article is great and tennyson also helped me a lot for my project#8230;.but i am currently writing a novel and i need some pointers for it#8230;..would you be able to help. The novel is a fan-fic on the original series Percy Jackson#8230; Congrats on starting the rewarding project of writing your own novel. Historical Society! The best advice for writing a novel is just sitting down and writing it. You may be tempted to make up excuses such as not having enough time or not feeling like it#8217;s coming out as you want it to, but if you#8217;re serious about ulysses tennyson, this, you#8217;ll set those excuses aside and tragedy just write.

Your first draft does not have to be perfect. In fact it won#8217;t be perfect. It will likely be a giant mess. Ulysses! So you need to be okay with that fact and just get through it. Set a word count goal for every day, and every week. A final novel is about 70,000-100,000 words so keep that in witches, mind! It#8217;s a marathon. Once you have a draft, you can go back and ulysses revise it#8230; again and witches scene macbeth again until it#8217;s right. were recquired to do 1500 word essay and tennyson i didnt know what topic I can choose. But thank you for this, it gave me an idea. Canal Tragedy! I#8217;m so glad you found it helpful! Thanks for reading.

Naomi help me please? i#8217;am looking for the disadvantages of a physical store and found only minor things. i wanted to find a disadvantage that can put up a fight. Do you mean the tennyson disadvantages of shopping at a physical store or of owning one? I assume you mean shopping at one, so here are a couple ideas off the witches top of ulysses, my head: Unless you live nearby, you have to pay to witches scene macbeth, travel there (gas, wear and ulysses tear on your car). Scene Macbeth! There is a higher risk that the tennyson store will be out and Cons of an Independent Central of the item you need (or won#8217;t have the right size, type, flavor, etc.) due to limited inventory. Prices may be higher due to ulysses, overhead costs (rent, utilities, etc.) compared to online-only establishments. thank you Erin. this is such a big help. Scene Macbeth! Happy to ulysses tennyson, help! Thanks for reading #128578; I think any of the topics listed here could be pretty amazing #8212; just make sure you back up your ideas with solid reasons. Happy writing (and impressing)! Hi, help here how do I start a court criminal observation essay with this thesis- Justice should be maintained but is the system worth it? i have a ten page essay due in a month so any advice on how to get it done without killing myself.

Hey, a month is lord famous a good long while. I#8217;d definitely break it down into lots of smaller steps that you can attack a little at a time #8212; brainstorming, researching, outlining, drafting, then revising. Tennyson! The outlining step will save you a ton of and Cons Independent Central, work; I#8217;d definitely read https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/argumentative-essay-outline/ for some pointers. You might also check out https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-an-essay-on-anything/ I have to make an tennyson long af essay and english is lord byron poems not even my natural born languege.SEND HELP. Agreed with some comments below that for some kind of essays up to 2k words everything you need is ulysses tennyson imagination and nothing else. Especially if you have internet then not a sinple paper work seem hard for me. The internet definitely makes writing papers easier. Thanks for origin the comment! Hello, I#8217;m need to ulysses tennyson, write a thesis for my uni#8217;s project this year. But, I#8217;m having a problem with my topic, is it a good topic or not?

I#8217;m not sure, will you help me? My thesis topic is, #8220;Students#8217; perception on scene, integrity, as one of the NDUM characteristics.#8221; *NDUM is my university, so I want to know how this integrity give an effect to the students, in the way of education. I think you#8217;re off to a good start, but you still need to take a stance on your topic. Here is an tennyson example of what I mean: #8220;Students#8217; perception of integrity, which is one of NDUM#8217;s characteristics, has a strong impact on how student success in The Pros and Cons of an Independent Central Bank, education.#8221; In a paper with that thesis, you could explore how positive/strong perceptions of integrity affect success and/or how weak perceptions of integrity impact success. Another approach, if you want to focus only on positive impacts, might be: #8220;Students who have a strong perception of integrity, one of NDUM#8217;s core characteristics, tend to ulysses tennyson, be more successful in metallurgy, their educational endeavors.#8221; I hope these ideas help you narrow down your topic a bit! Hello everyone? I am an online tutor.

I do a wider array of assignments from essays, projects and research papers. I produce quality and original papers that are payable after receiving the tennyson assignments. All the assignments are done in is a, 12-24 hours. Be free to inquire more. Email: [emailprotected] . I#8217;m writing a 10-12 page essay about mental health. I don#8217;t know specifically what to write about because the topic itself is ulysses tennyson so broad. Can someone give ma an advice on this? I#8217;m writing a 10-12 page essay about canal, mental health. Ulysses! I don#8217;t know specifically what to write about because the The Pros and Cons Independent topic itself is ulysses so broad. Lord Byron! Can someone give ma an ulysses advice on this? You#8217;re right that #8220;mental health#8221; is a really broad topic.

If you#8217;re writing an argumentative essay, you need to come up with an approach/stance that#8217;s a) debatable and b)provable. Origin Of Volleyball! Here are a few examples of tennyson, possible approaches: Argue that the government (national, local, etc.) has a responsibility to increase funding for mental health initiatives. Should free mental health therapy be offered in schools? Argue in favor of/against. Origin Of Volleyball! Does the ulysses tennyson mental health of parents impact their children? Why or why not? There are a lot of possibilities here, but I hope those spark some ideas for how you can narrow your topic to be more specific. Happy writing! Thank you. I started my essay on government should increse the fundings. Historical Metallurgy! Now I#8217;m on my thesis statement. i just started this. do you think this will improve my spelling problem.

I am writing a 25000 minimum word essay. #128577; That#8217;s a long one, but you can totally do it. Just make sure to organize your ideas before you start. Tennyson! You might want to check out love tragedy https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/argumentative-essay-outline/ . This outline template can work just as easily for a 25000-word essay as it would a 500-word essay depending on how many claims you#8217;re making and how much evidence you use to ulysses, back them up. Much respect for your decision to go back to school! What an awesome example you#8217;re setting for your kids #128578; I would definitely recommend that you explore some of famous, our (many, many) other blog posts for writing help. Ulysses Tennyson! I#8217;m obviously biased, but they#8217;re a fantastic resource for getting un-stuck. The Pros And Cons Of An! As for this essay, I think that there are definitely some argumentative angles you could take with the subject of autism.

Off the top of tennyson, my head: 1. Metallurgy! Argue that autism should (or should not be) classified as a disorder/disability. For instance, some suggest that it#8217;s simply a type of neurodiversity and ulysses tennyson should not be treated as something #8220;wrong,#8221; just different. 2. Argue that autism stems from metallurgy (or does not stem from) environmental factors. The vaccine debate is perhaps the most popular example of ulysses tennyson, this argument, but there are a host of other causes that doctors, researchers, and witches parents have considered too. 3. Argue that Asperger#8217;s syndrome is/is not different from high-functioning autism.

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International Livestock Research Institute. Updated: 7 hours 13 min ago. Translating science into ulysses tennyson policy and development: The African perspective. A new program 'Agriculture for Food Security (AgriFoSe): translating science into policy and development' developed by researchers in Sweden has the potential to contribute to Africa’s achievement of the metallurgy society SDGs. Watch Appolinaire Djikeng's presentation at AgriFoSe here. Achieving food security in tennyson Africa is mission possible. Regional, continental and international leaders make the case for greater investment in biosciences research. Advances in bioscience technologies and innovations have the potential to transform agriculture in Africa. For over a decade, the tragedy Biosciences eastern and central Africa-International Livestock Research Institute (BecA-ILRI) Hub and ulysses tennyson its partners have played a vital role in empowering African science leaders to use biosciences in addressing major agricultural challenges. On 3 February 2016 , the BecA-ILRI Hub held its fifteenth anniversary celebration at ILRI’s headquarters in repeater in networking Nairobi. In 15 years of existence, the BecA-ILRI Hub has provided training in emerging biotechnologies to tennyson over 556 African researchers from over 27 countries , availing them access to state of the art laboratories which reflect global technological trends, including: genomics; bioinformatics; mycotoxin and nutritional analysis; tissue culture and plant transformation; and love molecular breeding platforms.

The BecA-ILRI Hub has also hosted 226 projects that are responding to national priorities in 21 African countries , and ulysses tennyson together with national and international partners, made groundbreaking contributions to agriculture including discovery of new viruses at the pig and human interface and in crop; contribution to the release of new sorghum varieties; contribution to a better understanding of the maize lethal necrosis disease; establishment of systems for what is a, the diagnosis and management of aflatoxin in maize; and the establishment of a regional forage program to increase livestock productivity. The February event convened over 200 people from across the globe to celebrate these accomplishments and explore ways to scale-up the Hub’s impacts to achieve food and nutritional security and ulysses tennyson economic well-being in Africa. During the opening of the event, Kenyan cabinet secretary for the ministry of agriculture, livestock and fisheries, Willy Bett emphasized the obligation of scientists to contribute to origin of volleyball the creation of sustainable agro-food sectors in Africa, and the need for a paradigm shift to ulysses fast track the conversion of research-based discoveries to solutions on the ground. Minister Bett said ‘feeding a growing population with less land resources is not mission impossible’, adding that his ministry was committed to ensuring the impact of bioscience research is felt in agricultural development in Kenya. In his keynote address, African Union’s New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD) Agency, Ibrahim Mayaki, described the BecA-ILRI Hub as a key player in agricultural research for development in Africa and lauded the initiative for contributing to metallurgy the Science Agenda for Agriculture in Africa (S3A) and Africa's policy framework for agricultural transformation, the Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP). The need to focus on opportunities rather than challenges was emphasized by ILRI director general Jimmy Smith who welcomed partnerships that will support the Hub’s contribution towards a well-nourished Africa.

Representing the BecA-ILRI Hub donor community, the ulysses tennyson Australian high commissioner to what is a in networking Kenya HE John Feakes and Canadian high commissioner to Kenya HE David Angell noted the tennyson BecA-ILRI Hub’s contribution to bridging a technological gap for African researchers. While commending individuals and institutions that were instrumental to the establishing the BecA-ILRI Hub, Gabrielle Persley, research director for the Crawford Fund Australia, challenged potential investors and partners to support the Hub and be a part of the seminal discovery for which it will be famous in the future. In his vote of thanks, BecA-ILRI Hub director Appolinaire Djikeng recognized the invaluable contributions of African and international research and donor partners, governments and institutions to what he termed ‘the great African success story’. Read the announcement about this event. View a collection of and social media coverage of the event by scrolling down through one page on Storify: CelebrateBecA—15 years of African agricultural biosciences excellence. View the ILRI livestream footage of the event. Watch a new 4-min video about the BecA-ILRI Hub.

Follow the hashtag #CelebrateBecA for tweets about the event. The BecA-ILRI Hub celebrates 15 years of biosciences in love canal and for Africa. An upcoming event on 3 February 2016 will mark the 15th anniversary of the ulysses tennyson Biosciences eastern and central Africa-International Livestock Research (BecA-ILRI) Hub's existence as a center for lord byron famous poems, excellence in ulysses tennyson agricultural bioscience research. The event brings together global, regional and local actors in agricultural biosciences research for development at the ILRI's headquarters in Nairobi, Kenya. It celebrates the The Pros and Cons Independent Bank Essay role played by the BecA-ILRI Hub and its many national agricultural research system partners in ulysses tennyson advancing African agriculture and food and nutritional security. Invited speakers and tragedy participants will deliberate on ulysses, ways to scale the Hub’s programs and impacts, particularly by working in and Cons Independent Bank partnership with and further empowering African science leaders and institutions. Ulysses Tennyson. The Hub’s technology platforms, offering vastly improved precision and efficiency in crop and livestock research, will be on display. Celebrating BecA@15 will answer four questions. Do the BecA-ILRI Hub’s platforms and services offer the region comparative advantages in agricultural science? What are they?

Has the Hub’s support through co-funding national researchers helped Africa meet its agricultural priorities? How? Are there unexplored opportunities for the Hub to support African governments in implementing their agricultural policies? What are they? What has enabled the Hub’s technology platforms, research projects and capacity building initiatives to thrive? What will do so in lord byron future? The event.

The event will be officially opened by the cabinet secretary for the Kenya Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries, the honourable Willy Bett. It will feature speakers and panelists from organizations such as the ulysses tennyson African Union/New Partnership for Africa’s Development (AU/NEPAD), the Australian and origin Canadian high commissions in Kenya, the Bill Melinda Gates Foundation, the John Innes Centre and the Rwanda Agriculture Board (RAB). Two high-powered panels will explore the BecA-ILRI Hub’s evolution in ulysses the agricultural biosciences space and the potential for science and technology to accelerate Africa’s agricultural development. Distinguished alumni of the Hub’s Africa Biosciences Challenge Fund (ABCF) will describe the impacts the Hub has had on love canal, their research work, careers and institutions. Interactive displays and ulysses tennyson exhibition stands will showcase ways the Hub and its partners are helping to repeater transform agricultural landscapes across Africa. And a state-of-the-art ‘Integrated Genotyping Service and Support Service’ supported by BMGF will be launched. The morning sessions will be livestreamed and can be viewed here. Find out more about the BecA-ILRI Hub by visiting its website and blog. For more information about the ulysses tennyson event, please contact BecA-ILRI Hub's Ethel Makila: e.makila [at] cgiar.org.

For information about media engagement, please contact ILRI’s Muthoni Njiru: m.njiru [at] cgiar.org. Follow the event on social media with the hashtag #CelebrateBecA. Rothamsted International Fellowship Scheme call for applications: Deadline 21 December 2015. The Rothamsted International Fellowship Scheme (RIFS) supports scientists from developing countries to train at Rothamsted Research for 6-12 months on a research project they develop jointly with a Project Leader at macbeth, Rothamsted. The Candidate must meet the following criteria: be of doctoral status, with at ulysses tennyson, least two years post-doctoral experience. Candidates without Higher Degrees must have equivalent research experience to origin be considered eligible for the scheme. Applications will not be considered where the ulysses main objective of the byron famous poems visit is research leading to ulysses a higher degree for lord, the Candidate. Ulysses. The Candidate must be a citizen of lord byron famous poems, a developing country, or have been based exclusively within a developing country. Please note that developing countries are defined as the countries listed on the DAC list of ODA recipients (http://www.oecd.org/dac/stats/documentupload/DAC%20List%20of%20ODA%20Recipients%202014%20final.pdf – also available in tennyson the Downloads section). It is tragedy essential that the tennyson Candidate returns to employment in their home country where the work conducted in the fellowship can be applied. Candidates who have extensive and/or continuous employment in a developed country are not likely to be awarded an RI Fellowship.

If the Candidate has previously travelled overseas to carry out in networking research, there must be evidence that the tennyson skills gained have been applied in their home country. The Candidate should know their Rothamsted Project Leader (either directly or indirectly), or have been highly recommended. Lord. In addition to the support of the Rothamsted Research Project leader, applications must also have the ulysses tennyson support of the Head of Department where the fellowship will be hosted. For more information and to apply, visit the Rothamsted website. International Foundation for Science (IFS) individual research grants 2016 call for origin, applications - Deadline 31/12/2015. The International Foundation for Science invites early-career scientists in IFS eligible developing countries to apply for IFS Individual Research Grants and carry out research projects for a period of up to tennyson 3 years. An applicant must have at least an MSc/MA, be younger than 35 years of age (for men) or 40 years of age (for women) and witches scene must do the tennyson research project in an IFS eligible country. Alliance to tackle African food security challenges strengthened. The John Innes Centre (JIC) in Norwich and the Biosciences east and central Africa-International Livestock Research Institute (BecA-ILRI) Hub in Nairobi have announced advances in their collaboration which aims to find scientific solutions to African food security challenges.

The Africa Biosciences Challenge Fund 2016 – Call for Applications. The Biosciences eastern and central Africa - International Livestock Research Institute (BecA-ILRI) Hub , located in Nairobi, Kenya, is a shared agricultural research and biosciences platform that exists to increase access for African researchers to affordable, world-class research facilities. The mission of the BecA-ILRI Hub is “Mobilizing Bioscience for Africa’s Development” by providing a Centre of Excellence in agricultural biosciences, which enables research, capacity building and historical society product incubation, conducted by scientists in Africa and for Africa, and empowers African institutions to harness innovations for regional impact. This mission is achieved by the BecA–ILRI Hub’s contributions to: Research: enabling research to harness the potential of the biosciences to contribute to increasing agricultural productivity and to ulysses tennyson improving food and nutritional safety and security. Education: contributing to the education and origin of volleyball training of the next generation of African agricultural research leaders and scientists. Ulysses Tennyson. Innovation: promoting the and Cons of an Bank development, delivery and adoption of new technologies to address key agricultural productivity constraints. The BecA-ILRI Hub capacity building program is branded The Africa Biosciences Challenge Fund (ABCF) . The ABCF program operates in the critically important intersection between agricultural research for development (ARD), food security, and individual and institutional capacity building. The ABCF program is delivered through: i) a visiting scientist program (the ABCF fellowship) targeting scientists from African national agricultural research organizations and universities to tennyson undertake biosciences research-for-development projects at the BecA-ILRI Hub; ii) annual training workshops to support the acquisition of practical skills in molecular biology, genomics, bioinformatics, laboratory management, laboratory safety, equipment maintenance and scientific writing; iii) mobilizing national and witches scene macbeth regional capacities for joint action; and iv) supporting and strengthening the capacity of National Agricultural Research Systems (NARS) to deliver on their research for development agenda. The purpose of the ulysses tennyson ABCF fellowship program is to develop capacity for agricultural biosciences research in Africa, to support research for development projects that ultimately contribute towards increasing food and nutritional security and/or food safety in Africa, and to facilitate access to the BecA-ILRI Hub facilities by African researchers (and their partners).

We seek applicants with innovative ideas for short to medium term research projects (up to 12 months) aligned with national, regional or continental agricultural development priorities that can be undertaken at the BecA-ILRI Hub. Areas of research. Applicants must be scientists affiliated (through employment) with an African National Agricultural Research Institute (NARI) or university, and conducting research in the areas of food and what is a repeater in networking nutritional security or food safety in tennyson Africa. Those carrying out research in the following areas are particularly encouraged to macbeth apply; Improved control of priority livestock and tennyson fish diseases including: African Swine Fever (ASF); Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia (CBPP) and Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia (CCPP); Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR); Rift Valley Fever (RVF); East Coast Fever (ECF); Capripox Virus diseases of ruminants; Harnessing genetic diversity for conservation, resistance to disease and improving productivity of crops and The Pros Central Essay livestock and fish (livestock focus: African indigenous breeds, particularly goats, chickens, alternative small livestock species);Molecular breeding for important food security crops in Africa; Plant transformation to address food insecurity in Africa; Plant-microbe interactions; Tissue culture and virus indexing for production of virus-free planting materials in Africa; Orphan/underutilized species of crops and livestock Crop pests, pathogens and weed management research, including biological control; Microbial technology for improving adaptation of staple food crops and forages to biotic and abiotic stresses; Food safety, including addressing aflatoxin and other mycotoxins contamination in food and feeds; Nutritional analysis of ulysses tennyson, food and animal feeds; Rapid diagnostics for crop, livestock and fish diseases; Genomics, bioinformatics and metagenomics including microbial discovery; Studies on climate-smart forage grasses and mixed livestock-crop systems; Microbial technology for improving adaptation of staple food crops and forages to and Cons biotic and abiotic stresses; Soil health in ulysses tennyson agricultural systems. This list is not exhaustive and applicants working on other relevant topics are welcome to submit their suggestions. Special opportunities also exist to connect with leading international scientists linked with the BecA-ILRI Hub in the following areas: wheat rusts, insect pests, and nitrogen fixation. Other special opportunities exist to connect with CGIAR Research Programs (CRPs): including but not limited to Livestock Fish, Agriculture for love canal, Nutrition Health, Humid tropics etc.

Such collaboration would allow the applicant’s research to contribute more directly to an impact-oriented research-for-development agenda, and offer additional opportunities for joint activities. Eligibility/applicant requirements National (passport holder) of a BecA-ILRI Hub target country for this call: Burundi, Central African Republic, Congo Brazzaville, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Gabon, Madagascar, Sao Tome and Principe, Somalia, South Sudan and Sudan. In exceptional cases we may consider applicants from other African countries. The applicant MUST be a researcher employed at a NARI or university. Please note that applicants from BURKINA FASO, CAMEROON, ETHIOPIA, GHANA, KENYA, RWANDA, SENEGAL, TANZANIA and UGANDA are NOT eligible to apply to this call. A separate strategy has been developed to support these countries through nominations, to build on ulysses, the on-going engagements between national research organizations and universities in these countries and the BecA-ILRI Hub. And Cons Bank Essay. The nomination will also aim at filling priority national research gaps jointly identified through on-going engagements.

HOWEVER, research scientists from the nine countries may apply to this call only if; (i) They have own funding to ulysses fully support their research and all other costs while at the BecA-ILRI Hub, or. (ii) They are able to of volleyball secure a significant portion (at least 50%) of their total research budget and other necessary costs while at ulysses, the BecA-ILRI Hub. What In Networking. In this case they would be seeking partial funding through application for tennyson, an ABCF fellowship. Currently engaged in research in food and nutritional security or food safety in Africa, or in a research area with relevance to origin of volleyball agriculture in Africa. Good working knowledge of written and spoken English. Ulysses Tennyson. Completed online application form. Love. A signed letter of endorsement of the application from the head of the applicant’s home institute/organization/university faculty. We particularly welcome applications from women and less resourced NARIs and universities. What the fellowship covers.

The BecA-ILRI Hub has secured funding to sponsor several fellowships on a highly competitive basis. The fellowship will cover the ulysses following costs[1]; Research costs at the BecA-ILRI Hub; Travel; Medical insurance; Accommodation; A modest subsistence allowance. Key timelines For any inquiries / clarifications related to and Cons of an Independent Central Essay this call, please send an email to: w.ekaya(at)cgiar.org Responses to inquiries/clarifications will close on December 20th 2015 mid-night (Nairobi time). Closing date for ulysses tennyson, applications: December 31st 2015. Notification to early applicants will start from January 22nd 2016. The notification process will be completed by February 22nd 2016 (indicative dates depending on byron poems, volume of applications).

Implementation of projects: projected start date is late March 2016. Ulysses Tennyson. Application form. To apply for a fellowship, click on what is a repeater in networking, the online application link below: Decision on applications. Details of successful applicants will be posted on the BecA-ILRI Hub Website on a continuous basis until completion of the review process. Note: Successful applicants will be expected to secure leave from their workstation to fully focus on their research fellowship at BecA-ILRI Hub during the fellowship contract period. The ABCF Research Fellowship program is supported by the Syngenta Foundation for Sustainable Agriculture (SFSA), the tennyson Bill Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF), the UK Department for International Development, the Swedish Ministry of Foreign Affairs through the Swedish International Development Agency (Sida), and the Australian Government through a partnership between Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) and the BecA-ILRI Hub. [1] Please note that BecA-ILRI Hub-funded fellowships do not cover the cost of fieldwork or research at tragedy, the applicant’s home institute.

Applicants who can fund their proposed research at BecA-ILRI Hub (either fully or partially) will have added advantage. Research to inform continental action plan for control of African swine fever in Africa. From 10–12 November 2015, key stakeholders in ulysses the pig industry in Africa will convene in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso to canal tragedy validate a regional strategy for the control of African swine fever (ASF) in Africa and develop a continental program for its implementation. The strategy was developed by a task force set up in May 2014 and comprising the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) the Biosciences eastern and central Africa (BecA)-ILRI Hub, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) andAfrican Union Interafrican Bureau For Animal Resources (AU-IBAR). For two years, a multidisciplinary team of researchers led by the BecA-ILRI Hub has worked to develop a clearer understanding of the pig systems and constraints to pig farming in tennyson East Africa a with a special focus on ASF. The pig industry in Africa which has grown in origin of volleyball economic significancewith the tennyson current pig population totalling 34.2 million head and official figures putting pork production at witches macbeth, 1.2 million tonnes a year is threatened by tennyson ASF, a devastating disease of pigs that is present in more than 20 countries in Africa. African swine fever is highly contagious and causes up to 100 percent mortality in pig herds. Although ASF does not cause infection in people, it impacts on the livelihoods of witches macbeth, farmers, and others who trade pigs and pork, through loss of income and food. Ulysses Tennyson. The Australian funded research focused on pig production systems, ASF causes and transmission patterns, and control measures for what repeater, the disease. Drawing from studies on production systems, breed characteristics, health constraints including zoonotics, and disease epidemiology the project has successfully modelled disease transmission dynamics.

These studies are supported by biosciences research capacity at the BecA-ILRI Hub that include deep sequencing, genotyping and bioinformatics, in vivo challenge containment facilities and lab based platforms that supports immunology. Based on this work, guidelines for the control of the spread of ASF, developed in tennyson partnership with key actors in the departments of The Pros and Cons Central Bank, veterinary services in the project target countries is informing the regional strategy which will be validated in tennyson Ouagadougou. The strategy is based on three founding principles: It is knowledge-based, using the best available epidemiological and socio-economic knowledge and experiences and on optimal preparedness, to reduce prevalence and prevent further spread of ASF; It is area-specific, addressing country and sector-specific epidemiological scenarios and technical options for prevention and control; developing regional and tragedy national capacities to monitor the disease situation and tennyson implement and historical society maintain prevention and control options; and tennyson providing sustainable, technically sound and origin of volleyball socially equitable support to ulysses tennyson control ASF; It is holistic, promoting gradual transformation of the lord famous less bio-secure, small-scale, scavenging production system common in Africa into a more bio-secure, small scale, semi-intensive production system. Ulysses Tennyson. The strategy also promotes biosecurity in scene macbeth existing semi-intensive and ulysses tennyson intensive production systems.

As the historical society strategic research partner the development of the regional action plan, the 'African swine fever: diagnostics, surveillance, epidemiology and control' project team represented by ILRI scientist Edward Okoth who leads the ulysses tennyson project, will make two presentations on ASF control initiatives. The presentation on ‘ASF Control Research and epidemiology in East Africa’ will highlight research on pig value chains, ASF and how research outputs have contributed to of volleyball ASF control and pig sector development. The presentation on ‘Managing of ASF risk in local pig value chains through increased prevention, detection and response capability’ will focus on ulysses, a proposed ASF control approach developed in partnership with Australia’s national science organization, the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO). Taking stock of Sweden’s research for lord, development investment in Africa: Dr Claes Kjellstrom from the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency visits the BecA-ILRI Hub. The Swedish Government’s strategic approach to sustainable development through research for development is at the heart of the sustained support for agricultural research programs in Africa including the Biosciences eastern and central Africa-International Livestock Research Institute (BecA-ILRI) Hub. A recent visit by Dr. Claes Kjellstrom, Senior Policy Specialist in the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency’s Department for Africa, to the BecA-ILRI Hub demonstrated Sweden’s support for increased agricultural biotechnology as one of the means of achieving food and ulysses tennyson nutritional security in sub-Saharan Africa. Since 2011, the Swedish Ministry for Foreign Affairs has provided financial support to a wide-ranging mix of innovative research for development and capacity building activities led by the BecA-ILRI Hub and The Pros Bank implemented in collaboration with African national agricultural research systems (NARS).

The Swedish funded research programs focus on two major agricultural development issues in Africa—achieving food security and climate change mitigation. The visit by Kjellstrom was his first opportunity to ulysses tennyson familiarize himself with the Swedish funded activities at the BecA-ILRI Hub since he assumed leadership of the BecA-Sweden partnership from Dr Gity Berhavan. The one-day visit started with a partnership introductory meeting with Dr Appolinaire Djikeng, director of the BecA-ILRI Hub. Of Volleyball. During this first session, Kjellstrom was briefed on current status of the BecA-Sweden partnership and its importance in the delivery of BecA’s mission since 2011. Kjellstrom then met with leading scientists and ulysses tennyson other key BecA staff who have been leading various components of the partnership.

Swedish investment in African agricultural research. Morris Agaba highlighted the role played by the program on genetic diversity of goats in Ethiopia and Cameroon program in influencing national policy and farmer practices to increase investment and management of goat genetic resources; Sita Ghimire gave an overview of the ‘climate-smart Brachiaria grasses to increase livestock production in East Africa’ research program which is being implemented in Kenya and Rwanda and has raised the profile of these grasses as a preferred forage for livestock especially in drought prone areas; and Francesca Stomeo talked about the suite of genomics and bioinformatics tools developed through the Plant virome project and have been applied in the exploration of the viral community in different agro-ecological zones in famous Kenya. On the capacity building activities that are co-funded by the Swedish Government, the Bill Melinda Gates Foundation, Australian government, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and Syngenta Foundation for Sustainable Agriculture, Wellington Ekaya underscored the impact being achieved through the close to 400 fellowships of up to one year that have been supported; over 600 NARS scientists have attended short courses; and the upgrading of bioscience research capabilities in ulysses tennyson four regional research institutions. Josephine Birungi who has oversight of the development of various technology platforms with the support of Swedish expertise from the Swedish National Veterinary Institute (SVA) and the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences. The tools and the knowledge gained on these platforms are being transferred to national laboratories. Touring the state-of-the-art biosciences laboratories. During a tour of the laboratory facilities, Kjellstrom met with recipients of the ABCF fellowships currently working at of volleyball, the BecA-ILRI Hub including Damaris Mwangi from the University of Nairobi; Asheber Tegegn from tennyson Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research; and origin of volleyball Francis Mwatuni from the ulysses tennyson Kenya Plant Health Inspectorate Service. Macbeth. Mwangi and Tegegne’s studies are leveraging on the research conducted by ulysses the Swedish funded research on climate smart Brachiaria grasses to improve livestock feed in Africa while Mwatuni is utilizing the genomics tools developed through the Plant virome project to develop a better understanding of MLND. Kjellstrom observed that the BecA-ILRI Hub’s approach to canal tragedy research for development is in consistent with the Swedish Government’s strategy of creating synergies between research across different programs as well as with other development investments. Ulysses. In agreement with these sentiments, Djikeng emphasized the emerging opportunities for further support that have arisen from Sweden’s initial support.

‘In addition to being in alignment with Sida’s regional cooperation agenda and with the BecA-ILRI Hub’s mission and business plan, the developing research areas are well positioned to respond to key national, regional and macbeth continental priorities,’ said Djikeng. Comprehensive plans for engagement with selected NARS in eastern and central Africa have been developed to guide joint efforts and investment in research and capacity building that include commitments of resources from national governments in eastern and ulysses tennyson central Africa. Metallurgy Society. A similar approach is being used with key partnering institutions in West Africa in ulysses tennyson responding to the increasing demand for support from the canal tragedy region. Building on the success of the climate smart Brachiaria grasses program and the wide range of partnerships established in 11 countries, the BecA-ILRI Hub is poised to lead a regional forage program to ulysses tennyson ensure that farmers increase their options for animal nutrition. Key innovations delivered under the Brachiaria program will be pivotal to support the establishment and acceleration of robust research programs on livestock productivity for other important forage species in the region. Outputs and outcomes from the robust livestock productivity program which has strong engagement of national research institutes and universities have already begun to guide key investments in Cameroon and other countries. There are also emerging opportunities for crop improvement including plant pathogen interactions, emerging plant disease, new cultivar development through breeding for high yield disease resistance and nutritional quality that would greatly enhance BecA’s capacity and leverage current strategic partnerships with African partners and other collaborators in origin advanced research institutions across the world.

Promising returns on investment. Kjellstrom termed his visit as an excellent update of what had been done with Sweden’s investment since 2009, saying he concurred with his predecessor’s assessment of the BecA-ILRI Hub’s achievements. ‘In her hand-over report to me Gity has described the BecA-ILRI Hub’s performance as being excellent,’ he said. ‘You have achieved all objectives with very few risks’, he added. Regional cooperation in agricultural bioscience research: maximizing the opportunities at the BecA-ILRI Hub. 2 October 2015 —Increased investment in modern biosciences can significantly contribute to the transition of sub Saharan Africa from a source of raw materials to a producer of tennyson, value added products and drive economic growth on witches, the continent. According to ulysses Dr Peter Ndemere executive secretary of historical, Uganda National Council for tennyson, Science and Technology (UNCST), science, technology and innovation in general and modern bioscience in particular are critical to poems the transformation of tennyson, regional populations from subsistence to witches modern and prosperous communities. Tennyson. Ndemere was speaking at a symposium convened on scene, 29 September 2015 at the UNCST headquarters in Kampala, Uganda, to discuss regional cooperation in biosciences for agricultural development.

The gathering of ulysses, researchers, policy makers and representatives of love, international agricultural research institutions were exploring opportunities for collaboration in ulysses tennyson bioscience research and canal tragedy capacity building for improved agricultural productivity, income generation and food and tennyson nutritional security; and macbeth prospects for ulysses tennyson, the Uganda national agricultural research system (NARS) actors to maximize opportunities available at the Biosciences eastern and of volleyball central Africa–International Livestock Research Institute (BecA-ILRI) Hub in ulysses Nairobi, Kenya. Dr Appolinaire Djikeng, the byron famous director of the tennyson BecA-ILRI Hub highlighted the support that has already been availed to Ugandan agricultural research institutions totaling over USD 725,000. The BecA-ILRI Hub’s contributions include ongoing research and capacity building activities with Makerere University, Gulu University and The Pros and Cons Independent Bank the National Agricultural Research Organization. ‘The BecA-ILRI Hub presents an opportunity for the African scientists to develop their capacities and ulysses tennyson should be seen as an extension of the capabilities available within the NARS’ said Djikeng. Dr Theresa Sengooba, chairperson of UNCST commended the BecA-ILRI Hub for supporting regional NARS in seeking practical solutions to agricultural development challenges in the country and the region. Dr Sengooba who is in networking also a BecA-ILRI Hub advisory panel member underscored the need to ulysses strengthen public-private, public-public and private-private partnerships for sustainable collaboration. To demonstrate the metallurgy society contribution of the ulysses tennyson BecA-ILRI Hub to bioscience innovation in byron poems the region, Dr Charles Masembe, associate professor at Makerere University talked about his research on African swine fever while Dr Laban Turyagyenda, director of the Ngeta Zonal Agricultural Research and Development Institute highlighted his work on tolerant cassava varieties, both of ulysses tennyson, which have been done in love canal tragedy collaboration with the ulysses tennyson BecA-ILRI Hub. Dr Alex Bombom, a post-doctoral scientist at the BecA-ILRI Hub gave insights to his groundbreaking work in the development of a hybrid crop between maize and sorghum, with high potential for dual use as food and fuel. The symposium was attended by 30 participants comprising UNCST Board Members and senior managers, senior scientists and researchers from NARO and Makerere University and government officials from the Ministry of Education, Science, Technology and Sports. The ILRI country representative, Dr Ben Lukuyu was also present at the symposium which was moderated by Dr Julius Ecuru from UNCST. Enhancing agricultural research in Africa through bioinformatics–The BecA-ILRI Hub hosts annual training advanced genomics and bioinformatics workshop.

On 10 September 2015 the African Academy of Sciences (AAAS) and the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) Agency launched the Alliance for Accelerating Excellence in Science in of an Independent Bank Essay Africa (AESA). Ulysses Tennyson. The impetus for this initiative is to increase the capacity of African Scientists to conduct for scientific and health research in Africa. During the same week, the BecA-ILRI Hub kicked off its annual Advanced Genomics and what in networking Bioinformatics training workshop. The intensive 10-day training which runs up to Friday 18 September is among the four annual workshops designed by the BecA-ILRI Hub to address capacity gaps in agricultural biosciences research in Africa. Through this workshop, researchers from national agricultural research systems (NARS) in eastern, central and western Africa acquire skills that help them decipher the huge amounts of biological data that could translate to the more rapid solution of challenges to acquiring food and nutritional security on the continent. Julia Khayeli, a participant from the Jomo Kenyatta University of Agricultural Technology in Kenya said ‘I am very excited because I have finally made sense of the sequences I got from my research!’ In addition to tennyson deciphering her data, Khayeli had the opportunity to network with researchers from 12 eastern, central and western African countries. The workshop is being conducted in collaboration with the Swedish University of canal tragedy, Agricultural Sciences (SLU) which has partnered with the BecA-ILRI Hub for the last nine years, providing access to technical advice and enhanced expertise from the institution and ulysses tennyson co-convening regional bioinformatics workshops. Read a related story on the partnership with SLU:

Vacancy: Research scientist – Livestock Genetics/Genomics. The International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) seeks to recruit a Research Scientist – Livestock Genetics/Genomics to The Pros and Cons of an Independent Central Essay build the biosciences research capacity of scientists and graduate students in the east and tennyson central Africa region, in particular to support the many regional researchers who come to the BecA-ILRI Hub to conduct their own agricultural biosciences research projects. World class training in regional facility - Addis Ababa University team receives specialized training at the BecA-ILRI Hub. NAIROBI, 4 September 2015—The shortage of scientists, engineers, health professionals and scene macbeth technicians in sub-Saharan Africa has been blamed for the lack of sustainable homegrown solutions to development challenges on the continent. To address this gap, innovative approaches to providing high level Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) skills training with the limited national resources available to majority African governments of must be sought. From 17-28 August 2015, a team of ulysses tennyson, eight scientists from the Addis Ababa University received a tailor-made training in is a repeater molecular biology, genomics and bioinformatics at the Biosciences eastern and central Africa-International Livestock Research Institute (BecA-ILRI) Hub in Nairobi. By undertaking the training just 1,500km from home, the team, which had received funding from the National Institute of Health (NIH, USA) to conduct research on tuberculosis in Ethiopia, was able to minimize project costs of ulysses, time, travel and accommodation. The project entitled “Systems Biology for Molecular Analysis of Tuberculosis in Ethiopia” is being implemented in collaboration with the J. Craig Venter Institute (JCVI), USA. ‘When my counterpart Dr Rembert Pieper from JCVI proposed the BecA-ILRI Hub as the training sight, I was excited because it meant we could have more people trained,’ said Prof. Gobena Ameni, project principal investigator and Professor at the Addis Ababa University. ‘The option of travelling to USA for the same training would have cost the project too much time and money,’ he added. The two-week training which comprised lectures and hands-on experience enabled the participants acquire basic skills in genomic DNA purification, polymerase chain reaction, plasmid cloning, DNA sequencing and bioinformatics.

‘The training was excellent and has opened our minds to new ideas and areas of study,’ said Ameni. ‘It will not only be relevant to our current project NIH-funded project but also for our projects in scene macbeth other areas’ he said. The workshop was conducted as part of the ulysses tennyson BecA-ILRI Hub’s mandate to of an Bank Essay strengthen the ulysses tennyson capacity of African national research scientists and historical metallurgy institutions. This shared research platform exists to enable African science leaders to solve some of Africa’s key agricultural challenges through the applications of modern biotechnology by tennyson hosting research, conducting trainings and by providing research related services. ‘The BecA-ILRI Hub will build on metallurgy society, this model of building capacity and continue to tennyson engage national agricultural research systems in the region in order to sharpen our focus on innovatively responding to the needs of the NARS,’ said Wellington Ekaya, a senior scientist in charge of capacity building. Metallurgy Society. ‘This kind of engagement means that BecA-ILRI Hub can build the ulysses tennyson capacity of research scientist from African NARS to conduct high-end research at an affordable cost’. A training workshop on Scientific Research Paper Writing. The BecA-ILRI Hub hereby invites applications for a workshop on scientific research paper writing to be held from The Pros and Cons of an Independent Central Bank 26-30 October 2015 . The workshop is one of BecA-ILRI Hub’s annual training workshops under the capacity building portfolio, whose objective is to strengthen the ulysses capacity of African NARS to effectively, efficiently and sustainably deliver on their national mandates. The training will be conducted at the ILRI Campus, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Eligibility / Applicant requirements.

The workshop is generally open to PhD students and early career agricultural researchers with a strong interest in improving their writing skills. More specific applicant requirements include the following: • Fluent in English (written and spoken) • Currently conducting agricultural bio sciences research with an African national agricultural research program or university in one of the BecA countries: Burundi, Cameroon, Central Africa Republic, Democratic Republic of the tragedy Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Kenya, Madagascar, Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, Sao Tome and Principe, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda. • Must have a project report for conversion to a paper, and/or analyzed research data through figures and tables Women candidates are particularly encouraged to apply. Interested eligible scientists / researchers should apply by ulysses completing the famous online application form; http://hpc.ilri.cgiar.org/beca/training/Applications/Writeshop2015/ In addition, the applicant must attach a supporting letter from his/her supervisor or Head of Institution. Key dates / Application deadline. • Application deadline: 18 September 2015. • Information to ulysses tennyson successful applicants: 24 September 2015- Applications submitted after the 18 September 2015 deadline and incomplete applications will not be considered. There are several fully funded places for this workshop. Metallurgy Society. However, applicants who can fund their participation have an added advantage.

The cost of the workshop is ulysses tennyson $1500, excluding flights and accommodation. Inquiries about the workshop and / or the BecA-ILRI Hub Capacity Building Program should be directed to Dr. Wellington Ekaya, Senior Scientist Capacity Building (w.ekaya at cgiar.org) or Ms. Valerian Aloo, Capacity Building Program Officer (v.aloo at is a in networking, cgiar.org). The BecA-ILRI Hub hosts Kenyan legislators on ulysses, an agro-biotechnology fact-finding mission.

6 August 2015, Nairobi, Kenya -- The BecA-ILRI hub hosted a lab tour for Kenyan parliamentarians drawn from various house committees. The Members of parliament were on a mission to assess the human and origin infrastructural capacity in tennyson agricultural biotechnology research in Kenya. The visit which gave the law makers an is a in networking opportunity to interact with scientists was hailed as an eye opener by the chair of the education committee in parliament, Hon. Sabina Chege who took part in the tour. “I urge scientists to organize more such events to equip the legislature with vital information in research that will enable them make informed decisions” she said. Celebrating outgoing BecA-Sweden partnership leader, Gity Behravan.

Wednesday 5 August 2015 - The BecA-ILRI Hub staff and Africa Biosciences Challenge Fund (ABCF) fellows held a celebration in honour of Dr Gity Behravan, First Secretary – Regional Research Cooperation, at the Embassy of Sweden in Kenya. Through her oversight role in the BecA-Sweden partnership, Berhavan has been instrumental in ulysses tennyson the growth of the BecA-ILRI Hub’s capacity to empower African scientists and national agricultural research systems (NARS) to solve Africa’s agricultural challenges by strengthening research for development capacity in biosciences. 'Having engaged with BecA since the historical society very beginning, I am impressed with how it has grown into a vibrant program that is ulysses relevant to the wider African science agenda,' said Behravan. 'I am not leaving you behind, but will continue to support this program in my new role in Stockholm.' The partnership which is funded by historical society the Swedish Ministry for Foreign Affairs and tennyson the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida) brings together partners from African NARS, private sector, international research institutes, foreign universities and the CGIAR to conduct research aimed at achieving food security and climate change mitigation. Repeater. The partnership also provides financial support for the BecA-ILRI Hub annual training workshops and avails technical advice and enhanced capacity from Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU) to the bioinformatics platform.

Berhavan who has been with the partnership since its inception in tennyson 2011 will be relocating to Stockholm Sweden. UK chief scientific adviser visits Kenya: Research and love canal tragedy capacity building partnerships for development. The visit by ulysses United Kingdom Government's Chief Scientific Adviser, Sir Mark Walport to the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) in Nairobi, Kenya on 15 July 2015 highlighted how UK’s investment in research in metallurgy society Africa is spurring the emergence of strategic partnerships between research institutions in UK and Africa. Stemming food losses from devastating crop diseases in tennyson Africa. Among the scientists Sir Mark spoke to during his visit to ILRI were researchers Jagger Harvey, Josiah Mutuku (BecA-ILRI Hub); and Dorine Mutoni from Rwanda who are working on what is a repeater, components of projects supported by the Sustainable Crop Production Research for International Development (SCPRID), an initiative funded by UK’s Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC), the Department for International Development (DFID) and (through a grant awarded to tennyson BBSRC) the Bill Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF). Networking for capacity building in research. Through strategic collaborations with advanced research institutions in the UK, the BecA-ILRI Hub has set the stage for sub regional organizations; African universities; and research institutions within the BecA region; western and southern Africa and beyond to benefit from high-end basic research. A memorandum of understanding between the historical metallurgy society BecA-ILRI Hub and the John Innes Centre (JIC) in UK has opened access to new capacity building, resource mobilization and technology transfer activities that will contribute to ulysses tennyson accelerated agricultural bioscience research in Africa. Call for applications: A training course on historical metallurgy, advanced genomics and bioinformatics.

Workshop dates: 7 – 18, September 2015. The BecA-ILRI Hub seeks to strengthen the capacity of the African scientific community, to conduct bioscience research and significantly contribute to improved agricultural products that can enhance livelihoods of farmers in ulysses the region. We are seeking applicants from East and Central Africa who require advanced skills in Bioinformatics to support their research. A total of 25 graduate students and of an Independent Bank Essay early career researchers will be selected based on evidence of productive research and relevance of the training to their current research. Applicants who are currently engaged in agricultural research within a national research institute or a university are highly encouraged to apply. Selected participants will attend an ulysses tennyson intensive 2 weeks training workshop at the BecA-ILRI Hub in Nairobi, Kenya. Canal. The program includes comprehensive lectures and hands-on training sessions in Linux, Genomics and Next generation sequencing technologies, Genome and transcriptome assembly, Metagenome and metagenomic analysis tools and their applications to biological research. • A national of one of the BecA countries: Cameroon, Democratic Republic of the ulysses Congo, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Rwanda, South Sudan, Sudan, Tanzania and Uganda. • Affiliated with a national research program or university in the East African BecA region. • Currently engaged in biosciences research. • a minimum of love, MSc in biological sciences.

• Good working knowledge of written and spoken English. • Online application form completed by 10th August 2015: The workshop concept note is attached. Enhancing international partnerships for agricultural productivity in Africa – The BecA-ILRI Hub’s research for development partnership with Sweden in ulysses tennyson focus. From 29-30 June 2015, the Director of the Biosciences eastern and central Africa-International Livestock Research Institute (BecA-ILRI) Hub, Appolinaire Djikeng, visited the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU) in Uppsala and the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida) in Stockholm to discuss Sweden’s continued role in enhancing agricultural productivity in metallurgy society Africa. For the past nine years, the BecA-ILRI Hub and SLU have been partnering to increase the capability of ulysses, African national agricultural research systems (NARS) in is a bioinformatics, an interdisciplinary field which addresses biological problems using computational techniques. The BecA-ILRI Hub has also, since 2012, been implementing a suite of unique research projects focused on ulysses, achieving food security and climate change mitigation with funding from the Swedish Ministry for Foreign Affairs and Sida. The deliberations during the meetings focused on the key outputs of the BecA- Sweden partnership, the lessons learned and emerging areas of collaboration. Plans for joint resource mobilization and implementation of collaborative programs were also discussed in love tragedy the context of a presentation given by Djikeng on ‘ The BecA-ILRI Hub and its role in enhancing agricultural productivity in tennyson Africa through regional and international collaborations for research for development.’

Read a related story on the partnership with SLU here: Find out more about the BecA-Sweden partnership here. Top plant research institution stations scientist in Africa - The BecA-ILRI Hub John Innes Centre alliance. Through an alliance established with the BecA-ILRI Hub in 2014, the John Innes Centre (JIC), a world-leading international centre of excellence in plant science and microbiology, has now stationed one of their scientists, Tilly Eldridge in Kenya. The agreement between the institutions opens doors to new capacity building, resource mobilization and technology transfer activities between Africa and Europe. Tilly, a post-doctoral scientist from the UK, talks about her inspiration, aspirations and experiences as a pioneer in anticipated vibrant exchange of research experiences between UK and Africa. Inspiration, aspirations and famous experiences by Tilly Eldridge. I have always wanted to spend part of my career contributing to ulysses the advancement of research for agriculture in Africa. I first heard about the Biosciences eastern and central Africa-International Livestock Research Institute (BecA-ILRI) Hub when I was entering the metallurgy final year of my PhD studies and started enquiring about opportunities to work in Africa. It was not long after this that Jagger Harvey, a BecA-ILRI Hub scientist, visited the John Innes Centre (JIC) where I was and gave a very good presentation about the tennyson BecA-ILRI Hub. Listening to Jagger talk made me feel that the BecA-ILRI Hub was the perfect place for me to fulfil my ambitions.

The institute has an excellent scientific reputation and ground breaking policies in what repeater in networking capacity building. The completion of my PhD at JIC in October 2014 was perfect timing since the tennyson JIC-BecA alliance collaborations had started to gain momentum and love canal I had an opportunity to ulysses tennyson get involved. I hope that I can be an The Pros and Cons of an Central Bank Essay integral part of the JIC-BecA alliance, helping align projects and ulysses tennyson expertise from both institutes to canal make this a really fruitful collaboration. Ulysses. I hope that I also that I can evolve my own area of expertise and offer support to the many African national agricultural research system (NARS) scientists that are hosted here. I am inspired by the fact that the BecA-ILRI Hub is a hub for scientists working on national priority research projects from across the whole region. I look forward to origin of volleyball making. Everyone at the BecA-ILRI Hub has been really welcoming, enthusiastic and friendly since my arrival. I found that the science conducted here is indeed cutting edge and ulysses tennyson I am really impressed with the level of support that the staff provides no matter how busy they are. I look forward to continuing in the key role of being the main point of contact for the JIC-BecA alliance here at macbeth, the BecA-ILRI Hub. For my own research, it is really empowering to not just be focussed on getting that next important result but to also be part of capacity building for African scientists.

I think that many students and post-doctoral scientists from ulysses JIC would benefit greatly from spending time at the BecA-ILRI Hub and vice versa. Patron: Professor Peter C Doherty AC, FAA, FRS. Animal scientist, Nobel Prize Laureate for Physiology or Medicine–1996. ILRI thanks all donors and organizations which globally supported its work through their contributions to the CGIAR system. © International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI)

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10 Beautiful Book Dioramas Putting Your Fourth Grade Project to Shame. Remember when you were in middle school and you made that sweet shoebox diorama of#xA0; The Mixed-Up Files of Mrs. Basil E. Frankweiler #xA0;or#xA0; To Kill a Mockingbird ? Imagine making that project as an adult, with the benefits of fine motor skills and life experience. Well, that project dream has been put into practice. Tennyson? The results are charming, and love tragedy we have a library and its creative community to thank. Rochambeau Library in Providence, R.I. hosted the first#xA0;Dear Diorama competition this month,#xA0;an outreach contest in which adults submitted dioramas of their favorite books. PolicyMic spoke with Matthew Lawrence, an organizer of the event who describes the library as, an independent non-profit, unlike city-run libraries in most of the tennyson, country, so on a very basic level we rely pretty heavily on community support.#xA0; We are really blessed to live in a community like Providence where people really come together to make art, said Ed Graves, regional librarian.

Providence is a great city, but I bet there are libraries in every city that are goldmines, spaces of untapped creative possibility.#xA0; Let's hope so. Scroll on for some enchanting entries. 1. A Tree Grows In Brooklyn by Betty Smith. Look at everything always as though you were seeing it either for the first or last time: Thus is your time on earth filled with glory. - Betty Smith , A Tree Grows in Brooklyn. Witches Macbeth? Most of us fall in love with New York through the movies, books, music and ulysses other cultural touchstones that make it real for us. This beautiful diorama of#xA0; A Tree Grows in love Brooklyn #xA0;feels both loved and lovely.

Check out the details of all those people in their windows. Tennyson? 2. The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald. Byron? I was within and tennyson without. Simultaneously enchanted and repelled by the inexhaustible variety of life.#x201D; - F. Byron Famous? Scott Fitzgerald , The Great Gatsby. The diorama for#xA0; The Great Gatsby #xA0;looks like a punky, precious collage you might have made as a teenager. With the ulysses tennyson, florals, the The Pros and Cons Bank Essay, magazine cutouts and handwritten notes, it feels both familiar and fresh. Deep in the human unconscious is a pervasive need for a logical universe that makes sense. But the real universe is always one step beyond logic.#x201D; -#xA0;Frank Herbert ,#xA0;Dune. Thank goodness for ulysses, enthusiastic science fiction#xA0;readers. Dune #x2014;#xA0;that cult classic, politically charged, sci-fi masterwork #x2014; was bound to make an appearance in the competition. Showing a Fremen rider guiding a#xA0;sandworm across Arakkis' desert with a portion of the Litany Against Fear overhead, this diorama is perfection.

Granted: I AM an origin inmate of a mental hospital; my keeper is watching me, he never lets me out of his sight; there's a peep-hole in the door, and my keeper's eye is the ulysses, shade of love tragedy brown that can never see through a blue-eyed type like me.#xA0;-#xA0;G#xFC;nter Grass ,#xA0;The Tin Drum. Ulysses Tennyson? Full of quirky narrators and The Pros Essay that fairytale lyricism so prevalent in eastern European culture,#xA0; The Tin Drum #xA0;is a captivating story. This beautiful diorama by Jill Colinan has detail, texture and imagination galore #x2014; just like the book.#xA0;This diorama won the People's Choice Award of the competition. 5. Water for Elephants by Sara Gruen. Age#xA0;is a terrible thief. Just when you're getting the hang of ulysses tennyson life, it knocks your legs out from under you and stoops your back. Love Canal? It makes you ache and tennyson muddies your head and silently spreads cancer throughout your spouse. - Sara Gruen ,#xA0;Water for Elephants. This detailed diorama is just packed full of detail and, as Graves said, whimsy. The story follows members of love a circus troupe, touching on themes of love, age, intimacy, trust and tennyson secrecy. As viewers, it's lovely to see such meticulousness.

It almost looks like a scene from one of those I Spy books we loved as children. 6. Alice in Wonderland by Lewis Carroll. Poems? 'But I don#x2019;t want to go among mad people,' Alice remarked.#xA0;'Oh, you can#x2019;t help that,' said the Cat: 'we#x2019;re all mad here. I#x2019;m mad. You#x2019;re mad.'#xA0;'How do you know I#x2019;m mad?' said Alice.#xA0;'You must be,' said the Cat, or you wouldn#x2019;t have come here.' -#xA0;Lewis Carroll ,#xA0;Alice in Wonderland. Alice in tennyson Wonderland is society, one of ulysses tennyson those marvelous books that reminds us why we first loved reading. Marketed at children but written to engage an older audience, it's a joy to rediscover in adulthood. Historical Metallurgy? This diorama is ulysses tennyson, one of the of volleyball, more technically developed and depicts Absolem talking with Alice. I#xA0;always order the banned books from a black market dealer in ulysses tennyson California, figuring if the State of Mississippi banned them, they must be good.#xA0;-#xA0;Kathryn Stockett, #xA0;The Help. The Help garnered huge critical praise, both as a book and movie.

One of the few recent novels to be represented in the Dear Diorama competition, this entry steered clear of images of the main characters. Instead, it relied on an understanding of the plot to be recognized #x2014; a clever abstraction for a story this popular.#xA0; 8. Watership Down by Richard Adams. Many human beings say that they enjoy the famous poems, winter, but what they really enjoy is feeling proof against it. -#xA0;Richard Adams ,#xA0;Watership Down. Ulysses Tennyson? In terms of witches macbeth technical wizardry, I have to say Morgan's execution of Watership Down was flawless with the use of the ukelele to construct a subterranean tableau, Graves said of this diorama. We have to agree. Tennyson? 9. The Crying of Lot 49 by Thomas Pynchon. But with a sigh he had released her hand, while she was so lost in the fantasy that she hadn't felt it go away, as if he'd known the best moment to macbeth, let go.#xA0;- Thomas Pynchon , The Crying of ulysses Lot 49. Housed in a hat box and showing that trumpet, this diorama showcases some of the is a, more recognizable symbols of the endlessly detailed modern classic,#xA0; The Crying of Lot 49. 10.

We Have Always Lived In the ulysses tennyson, Castle by Shirley Jackson. Love Canal? I remember that I stood on the library steps holding my books and looking for a minute at the soft hinted green in the branches against the sky and wishing, as I always did, that I could walk home across the sky instead of through the village.#x201D; - Shirley Jackson ,#xA0;We Have Always Lived in the Castle. Deb Dormody's take on Shirley Jackson's We Have Always Lived in the Castle was really stunning, and I overheard two people who didn't even know each other talking about how they'd have to check out the book now, said Lawrence. This short story#xA0;is one of Shirley Jackson's strangest and most compelling #x2014; and she wrote exclusively strange, compelling and macabre stories.#xA0;For the competition, it was faithfully reinterpreted in a diorama that maintained the ulysses tennyson, tone of the story and the emphasis on internal narratives.

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Colombian prisons as a core institution of authoritarian liberalism. Prisons and inmate population in Colombia (1994–2013) Population (annual average) Overcrowding (annual average) Source: National Bureau of Colombian Prisons (INPEC) [ 28 , 29 , 32 ] Prison capacity and inmate population 1994–2014 (March).

Source: National Bureau of Colombian Prisons (INPEC) [ 28 , 29 , 32 ] Crimes reported by the Colombian National Police Force (1994–2011). Source: Colombian National Police Force [ 7 , 8 , 9 ] Prison population per 100,000 inhabitants (and total inmate population) in Latin American countries (1992–2013) Source: International Centre for Prison Studies (2013) Imprisonment rates (per 100,000 inhabitants) in Latin America (1992–2013). Source: International Centre for Prison Studies [ 33 ] The problem of incarceration in Colombia, which is similar to that in other countries, is neither passing nor confined behind prison walls; it affects Colombian society as a whole because it mirrors its problems and ulysses internal conflicts.

Colombian prisons dramatically underscore how vast sectors within an exclusionary and love canal tragedy unequal society are further marginalized through stigmatization and rejection as they are placed in the roles of dangerous delinquents. Prisons, in ulysses tennyson Colombia and elsewhere, also exemplify how modern societies prefer to face their structural problems and social instability by means of byron famous poems repressive criminal policies; thus further contributing to what Simon calls governing through crime [ 57 , 58 ]. The feelings of fear and defenselessness that permeate many societies are channeled by governments into strategies which augment and intensify the tools and techniques for ulysses control and security. This combination of factors, especially during the and Cons, past three decades, has given rise to a Culture of Control [ 20 : 175] which affects the lives of every citizen and tennyson which inspires governmental policy at the global level in a wide diversity of countries, in the Global North as well as in the Global South. It may be inaccurate to state that international homogeneity exists for punishment; in fact, a wide variety of tendencies can be found worldwide- as authors such as Lacey [ 40 , 41 ], Whitman [ 64 ], Lappi-Seppala [ 42 ], Melossi et al. [ 43 ], Nelken [ 45 , 46 ] and Sozzo [ 59 ] have pointed out. There is, however, in many countries both of the Global North and South a trend towards penal convergence [ 5 : 438, 441], as witnessed by macbeth, the overall growth of the inmate population brought about by increasingly harsh penal laws. The study, therefore, of the ‘crisis’ in ulysses Colombia’s prisons, as a paradigmatic example of repeater in networking a global tendency, cannot be approached from a reductionist viewpoint that attempts to be explained in its own terms. On the contrary, it must be based upon a wider perspective, one which includes understanding the penal system as the way state and tennyson society perceive crime and its respective forms of punishment. Lord? Punishment is not merely the way delinquents are treated; it is an ulysses tennyson authentic social institution which helps to define, and which at the same time reflects, the nature of a given society, and the relationships and conflicts of love tragedy which it is made up [ 18 : 287].

Thus, the current management of prisons and the penal system provide a key to understanding the transformation of Colombian society, along with its conflicts, during the past three decades, as well as to how social and power relationships have led diverse administrations into marginalizing an extensive sector of the ulysses, population with the argument that by doing so they are protecting society. From a sociological standpoint on punishment and prisons -both to be understood as complex social institutions-, this article aims to provide a critical diagnosis of Colombian prisons, and canal tragedy of their political and cultural uses and meanings in tennyson Colombian society over what the past 30 years. Towards this end, in the first part of the article (made up of the first two sections) I will present a critical analysis, based mainly upon official statistics, of the ulysses, major features and transformations in byron poems Colombian corrections facilities and in their inmate populations, and of the ulysses tennyson, criminal policies which legitimize their workings and and Cons existence. In the ulysses, second part (which is made up of the two following sections), by referring to aspects and love changes in ulysses tennyson Colombian prisons, I will explain the political and cultural meanings and uses of prisons in contemporary Colombian society. The central thesis of this essay is The Pros of an Bank that prisons have been turned into core symbols and institutions of authoritarian liberalism . This refers to a form of ulysses tennyson government, which has consolidated in the past three decades to a great degree due to its overlapping with a neoliberal political economy, but that nevertheless may not be reduced to a worldwide expansion of scene macbeth neoliberalism -as some authors, like Wacquant [ 63 ], claim, since it predates the arrival of neoliberalism to Colombia and Latin America during the eighties, and has features and ulysses dynamics of its own [ 35 , 36 , 38 ]. Authoritarian liberalism as a form of government protects the interests of the love canal tragedy, status quo -even if violence must be used- by sacrificing the ulysses, rights of society’s poorest and most vulnerable groups (which in Colombia is half the population). This state-sponsored defense of the predominant powers in scene macbeth Colombia has created a conspicuously exclusionary and unequal society, which, in large part, justifies the use and expansion of the prison system as a reaction to feelings of fear and vengeance. Ulysses? I will also show how this situation is not limited solely to Colombia (despite the fact that here it takes place in an extreme fashion), for in numerous democratic nations (in Latin America and elsewhere), similar situations occur. Hence, I assess, particularly for the Colombian case, the thesis which claims that the historical society, globalization of the neoliberal economic and tennyson political model is accompanied by a specific punitive model that excludes the poorest social groups through the use of punishment with the origin of volleyball, aim of consolidating a new form of ulysses tennyson government [ 63 : xviii]. Origin? In the conclusion, I propose an alternative approach to this trend in criminal justice along with more inclusive modes for dealing with it, which implies redefining (and reducing) the political and symbolic roles that prisons play in contemporary societies.

Colombian prisons during the past three decades: a history of failure. In 1989, overcrowding in ulysses tennyson Colombian prisons was not excessively high: 166 corrections facilities, with capacity for 26,307 inmates, held 26,715 prisoners, which came to a 1.55 % overcrowding rate [ 6 : 230–231]. Love Tragedy? But, during the tennyson, past twenty years the overcrowding rate has noticeably increased. Historical Society? Whereas, during the first part of the nineties prison capacity had increased by 6000 places, during the same period the inmate population rose by 18,000: in ulysses tennyson just six years the overcrowding rate in love canal tragedy prisons went from 10 % (in 1993) to 40 % (in 1999) [ 27 ]. Percent of overcrowding in Colombian prisons (1994–2013). Source: INPEC [ 28 ] Over the past two decades, excessive overcrowding, combined with the growing number of ulysses prisoners, has overwhelmed Colombia’s obsolete corrections system and aggravated what have always been deficient prison conditions; at the same time, widespread chaos and violence have taken hold inside these facilities where the Colombian government has never really been in control [See 17 ]. Index of occupations and education programs among the Colombian inmate population 2002–2012.

Inmate occupations (2002–2012). Source: INPEC [ 28 , 31 ] A sizeable number of inmates occupy themselves with informal jobs, that is to witches macbeth, say, with practically any kind of work -from selling food to cleaning floors- which prison authorities recognize as meriting reduced prison terms. However, prisoners carry out these activities on their own and with their own resources, and receive no worthwhile support or training from the institution [See 17 ]. In fact, according to a report from the National Office of the Comptroller ( Contraloria General de la Republica ), in 2006, the National Bureau of Colombian Prisons (INPEC) earmarked a mere 1.4 % of its overall budget for rehabilitation programs (including education), which was even less than what had been assigned the year before [ 50 : 4]. In so far as education is concerned, the other central pillar of rehabilitation, the panorama is ulysses similar: in 1999, 25 % of the inmate population participated in educational programs; in love December 2005, the percentage stood at 39.56 %, and in September 2008 it had reached 39.83 %; Nevertheless, from December 2010 it has significantly decreased –to 33.84 % in that year and to 33.45 % in December 2012. The average percentage of inmates who participated in educational programs between 2002 and 2012 was 37.99 % [ 25 , 27 ] (See Table 3 , Chart 5 ). Educational programs are mainly focused on basic levels, primary education above all; whereas secondary and tennyson university education programs, which could have significant demand considering the educational profile of the prison population (as will be shown in the following section), are hardly available. Subsequently, between 2004 and 2007, only 1.5 % of the inmate population officially certified their studies through the Colombian Institute for Higher Education (ICFES), and only 1 % took the lord poems, requisite state exams that would allow them to enroll in university programs [ 50 : 4]. As is often the case with occupational activities, educational programs serve primarily as the ulysses, means to shorten prison stays rather than serving as the foundation for rehabilitating inmates so that they may become productive members of metallurgy society society. The most worrying trend is the tennyson, increasing number of prisoners who are neither working nor studying in the past decade (particularly from 2007), becoming the majority of the love, prison population in 2012: in ulysses 1999, 34 % of the inmate population did not participate in any rehabilitation programs; the percentage of which dropped to The Pros and Cons of an Central Bank, 25.97 % in 2005, and to tennyson, 19.65 % in December, 2005. But from December, 2007 the number of not occupied inmates has increased steadily from 24.77 to 38.67 % in December 2012.

The average percentage of unoccupied inmate population between 2002 and 2012 was 28.98 % [ 25 , 27 , 31 ] (See Table 3 , Chart 5 ). Therefore, the statistics cited above clearly indicate that the rehabilitation programs proclaimed as institutional pillars of the penitentiary system from the time of historical metallurgy its creation, have failed. Prison neither reforms nor educates. We may ask then: What kind of person and crimes does the Colombian penal system tend to punish? Does it operate in a selective manner, affecting certain social groups and ulysses tennyson specific illegal activities more severely? These questions will be answered in the following section. Personal profiles and crimes committed by those who go to prison. Length of of volleyball inmates’ prisons sentences (number of prisoners) (1999–2013-April). Source: INPEC [ 26 , 30 , 31 ] Length of ulysses tennyson inmates’ prisons sentences (percentages) (1999–2013-April). Source: INPEC [ 26 , 30 , 31 ] In April, 2013, out of a total inmate population of what is a in networking 117,015, when grouped by gender, 92.42 % were men and ulysses tennyson 7.58 % were women.

Even though there has been an and Cons of an Essay increase of the proportion of women inmates (in 2008 94 % were men and 6 % women), this proportion has remained constant over time: between 1989 and ulysses 2008 there was practically no variation [ 6 : 41; 27 ]. Inmate education levels (1989–2013). Source: INPEC [ 31 ] Lastly, the percentage of repeat offenders has stayed relatively stable during the last decade (where data is available). According to INPEC data the origin, average percentage of repeat offenders among the Colombian inmate population between 2002 and 2013 stands at ulysses tennyson, 15.02 %. The foregoing data confirm a worldwide tendency regarding the demographic features of the prison population: in the overwhelming majority of contemporary capitalist societies, those who end up in prison are almost always young men, who often come from urban centers and byron marginalized environments, with scant education, and, as a rule, are unemployed or working in the informal economic sector [See 19 : 1160–1161; 20 : 90–93; 21 : 5; 60 , 61 , 63 , 66 ; for the case of ulysses Latin America, See 14 , 15 , 39 , 62 ]. Crime statistics, prisoners’ profiles and Essay the crimes for which they are imprisoned are useful in understanding the selective manner in ulysses which the criminal justice system works, and for which the penitentiary provides the final phase and receptacle. Statistics serve to identify which crimes are the most likely to in networking, be prosecuted by the state and what kind of individuals will most probably end up in prison. Total number of crimes reported per 100,000 inhabitants (1994–2011). Source: Colombian National Police Force [ 9 ] Prison population per 100,000 inhabitants (1994–2011). Source: INPEC [ 30 ] Percentage break-down of crimes committed by Colombian prisoners (1977–2013). Source: Colombian Ministry of Justice [ 6 ], INPEC [ 27 , 31 ] By 1989, 33.75 % of the inmate population had been imprisoned for crimes against ulysses tennyson property and 30.75 % for homicide and aggravated assault; 1.5 % was being held on a combination of both types of crime.

Consequently, in 1989, 66 % of Colombian prisoners were behind bars for byron famous poems homicide, aggravated assault and crimes against property (Ibid.: 83, 84). Drug-trafficking accounted for 15.5 %, followed by crimes against state security forces (such as terrorism and related offenses, and the illegal possession of weapons) at 3.25 %; sexual assaults made up 2.5 %, and crimes against the rule of constitutional law (particularly rebellion and sedition) comprised 0.25 % of the total (Ibid.: 87) (See Chart 11 ). In December, 1999, the majority of prisoners in Colombian corrections facilities had been accused or sentenced for ulysses homicide, aggravated assault (31.09 %), or crimes against property (28.59 %), which came to scene macbeth, a combined total of 59.68 % [ 27 ]. Next, were those crimes related to drug-trafficking (10.2 %), those committed against state security forces- -which include terrorism and related offenses- (7.08 %), sexual assaults (5.45 %), crimes against tennyson individual liberty -mainly kidnapping- (5.33 %), and crimes against the rule of constitutional law -especially, rebellion-(2.33 %). Origin Of Volleyball? (Ibid.) (See Chart 11 ). In 2008, homicides and aggravated assault along with crimes against property continued to rank first and second at tennyson, 26.66 %, and 24.82 % of the total, respectively. Subsequently, when added together they represented more than half (51.48 %) of witches all crimes that had been committed by inmates in Colombia in ulysses tennyson that year [ 27 ]. The list continued with drug-trafficking (17.18 %), sexual assault (9.54 %), crimes against public security forces -including terrorism and related offenses- (8.45 %), crimes against individual liberty -including kidnapping and forced disappearance- (5.59 %), and crimes against love canal the constitutional rule of law -in particular, the crime of affiliation with illegal armed groups (3.03 %) [ 27 ] (See Chart 11 ).

By April 2013, the same pattern continued -crimes against property (22.16 %) together with homicide and assault (17.34 %) made up the majority of crimes that ended up in tennyson prison (39,50 %), even though is worth noting that they no longer make up more than half of crimes. This is due to the important increase of drug-trafficking (which doubled with respect to 2008, with 14.50 %) and the larger proportion of offenses against individual liberty (7,98 %) [ 31 ] (See Chart 11 ). As the byron, abovementioned numbers reveal, starting in 1989 the proportion of inmates being held for homicide and assault as well as for drug-trafficking and terrorism went up conspicuously as a result of the country’s armed conflict and the war on tennyson, drugs, most notably against the Medellin cartel -from the latter part of the eighties until the first part of the nineties- a group notorious for violent and terrorist acts, and which was in the throes of and Cons of an Independent Central Bank its demise [ 36 ]. The growth of cocaine-trafficking has also intensified the armed conflict in Colombia as it provides immense capital resources which both the guerrilla and paramilitary militias use to procure arms for their troops, to battle one another and to maintain control over most of the coca growing regions in the country [See 4 , 48 , 54 ]. On the basis of the ulysses tennyson, foregoing, it can be concluded that, in general terms, the intensification of violence and canal armed conflict coupled with the social and economic crisis that held sway during the decade of the ulysses, nineties is reflected in love Colombia’s prison statistics, made up primarily of individuals indicted on and sentenced for ulysses crimes related to these calamities (crimes against scene property, homicide and aggravated assault, drug-trafficking and offenses against law enforcement). The abovementioned data, which cover three different decades, reveal the fact that those imprisoned for homicide and aggravated assault, as well as for crimes against property, constantly comprise the largest portion of the Colombian inmate population (between 39.50 and 75 %). These categories are persistently followed by that which includes individuals accused of or sentenced for drug-trafficking (nearly 15 % of the total inmate population), whose numbers doubled during the eighties -precisely when all-out war was declared on drugs- going from 6.91 % of the total inmate population in 1977 to 15.5 % in 1989, and ulysses again between 2008 and 2013, and which rose as a consequence of the repressive criminal justice policy upon The Pros and Cons Central Bank Essay, which the state instituted its war on drugs, organized crime and the various illegal militias operating within the country [See 36 ]. It is also worth noting the significant increase of tennyson inmate held for sex crimes (which increased from 2.50 % in byron 1989 to 7,65 % in 2013 -the proportion trebled). Sex Crimes, in Colombia as elsewhere, have become a common target of penal populism [see 63 : 209–239]. The selectivity of the ulysses tennyson, Colombian penal system and its relation to authoritarian liberalism. On the basis of the statistics analyzed in the section above, it may be concluded that the Colombian inmate population has not significantly varied during the past three decades, neither its basic features: it is a relatively young population, overwhelmingly masculine, with scant education and unemployed or working at low-paying jobs before entering prison. Hence, it is apparent that the majority of the inmate population comes from marginalized sectors of Colombian society, where high levels of exclusion and poverty prevail. Government policies directed towards that part of the what repeater in networking, populace deemed delinquent, which Feeley and Simon [ 16 ] label as the New Penology , aim not to ulysses tennyson, reduce crime and eliminate its causes, but rather to manage and control social groups looked upon as problematic.

Additionally, this approach to government has tended to be associated during the past two decades, in the Global North as well as in the Global South, with the neoliberal agenda. That is to metallurgy society, say, it is based upon ulysses, the free market and deregulation of the economy, along with the downsizing of the welfare state which provides social benefits to marginal social sectors, and the broadening of the prison state, which through a system of punishment, maintains control over these same sectors [ 63 : xviii]. 3. Some authors, particularly from the Global North, as Lacey [ 41 : 789], suspect that, since Latin American countries are more economically dependent upon and share closer political ties with the United States, they are probably more susceptible to being pressed into implementing the same corrections policies as those in use in the United States. More detailed research on particular Latin American countries, such as Sozzo’s analysis of the Argentinian case [ 59 ], show that, even though the Independent Bank Essay, influence of neoliberalism in ulysses tennyson political, cultural and economic aspects of Latin American societies is The Pros Bank Essay undeniable, the features and transformation of ulysses their crime control fields respond to the particular and local dynamics of each society, rather than the historical society, influence or pressure exerted by the United States. Furthermore, the last two decades have witnessed important transformations in Latin America, particularly in the political landscape, the most important being the political realignment of Latin American countries between left and right. Venezuela, Bolivia, Ecuador, and Nicaragua are undergoing intense political processes under the lead of leftist governments, which, at least at the discursive level, defend socialism in radical terms. On the other hand, countries like Colombia, Mexico, Peru, and El Salvador have been led mostly by ulysses, right-wing governments with a neoliberal tendency and repeater in networking a with a political and economic interest in having close ties with the United States.

At the tennyson, centre of the political spectrum there are countries like Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, and what is a repeater Chile that have been ruled by leftist governments that have accepted market capitalism rules and principles as part of ulysses tennyson their political and economic agenda [ 37 ]. Considering all these important transformations, it is poems very likely that crime control fields have undergone important changes in countries like Venezuela, Bolivia, Ecuador, and Nicaragua, which are experiencing intense social and political conflicts that affect violence and crime rates, 4 as well as penal policies and ulysses tennyson imprisonment rates. Actually, in many of the countries that are undertaking structural leftist reforms, imprisonment rates have increased, even though official data has become hard to get in many of these (like Venezuela, Ecuador, Nicaragua, and lord famous poems Bolivia). 5. Even if most of tennyson Latin American countries share a common history and display cultural, economic, political and social similarities, they also have their own historical trajectories, which merit a detailed and historical society nuanced analysis in order to tennyson, establish resemblances as well as differences. Thus, compared and case study analyses on Latin American crime control fields 6 are needed in order to assess the similarities of is a repeater these fields (such as high crime –and particularly homicide- rates, increasing imprisonment rates, the hardening of criminal policies), how they came into being, their connections, as well as an explanation of their differences and divergent trajectories [ 37 ]. For the same reasons, though it may be reasonable to say that there is a certain drift towards penal convergence –and a harsh one, in ulysses many of the Latin American countries, regardless their political leaning to tragedy, the right or left, there remains the task to explain to which degree such convergence is due to shared or different political and economic processes, or maybe to a combination of both. Regarding the global debate on the expansion of neoliberalism, the previous thoughts should warn us against ulysses the notion that, because of the influence of neoliberalism in love political, cultural and economic aspects of Latin American societies, the ulysses, features and transformations of their crime control fields respond exclusively or mainly to the influence or pressure exerted by neoliberal policies and doxa -US style. Such caution is of special interest for the analysis of the Colombian case, for Colombia has had close political and economic ties to the United States, something that is evident in lord byron the configuration of the Colombian crime control field during the last three decades, in great measure due to tennyson, the US led war against drugs [ 36 ]. Thus, it is not surprising that neoliberal technologies and discourses regarding crime control have influenced the Colombian crime control field [ 35 , 36 , 37 , 38 , 52 , 53 , 56 ]. But, at historical metallurgy, the same time, one should bear in mind that Colombia, like every other Latin American country, has its own historical trajectory, and that the tennyson, configuration of its crime control field, even though influenced by neoliberalism and close cooperation with the United States, predates it and presents its own features and processes. Elsewhere [ 35 , 36 , 38 ] I have used the term authoritarian liberalism as a concept that synthetizes the main features of the Colombian crime control field during the historical society, second half of the Twentieth century and the first two decades of the Twentieth First century. These basically point to tennyson, the intensive use of punishment discourses and technologies to uphold, through violent means, a highly exclusive political and origin of volleyball economic order to the benefit of elite groups of Colombian society.

Although this may be regarded as a long-lasting feature of the Colombian crime control field, authoritarian liberalism strategies, discourses and ulysses tennyson practices have changed over the years and have not been left untouched by and Cons of an Independent, the changes experienced by an increasingly globalized world. Authoritarian liberalism has changed and adapted to different political, economic, and tennyson social circumstances throughout late modernity, just as the Colombian political system and society have undergone fundamental transformations. Though positive changes have occurred during this period of time, authoritarian liberalism stubbornly remains. Governments of different political persuasions, be they conservative or liberal, have resorted insistently to punishment and penal institutions to defend the establishment from what it perceives as threats to byron poems, its interests, and even to its very existence. Nevertheless, the politics of penal institutions have responded through time to different social, economic, and political contexts, as well as framing different enemies.

For explanatory purposes the politics of the Colombian crime control filed during the last three decades shall be organized in three distinct historical periods – the eighties, the nineties and the new millennium [ 35 , 36 ]. The eighties in Colombia were marked by the war against drugs. Tennyson? The virulence of drug cartels -as well as US pressure- persuaded Colombian governments to concentrate their efforts on fighting the illegal drugs trade [ 36 : 80–87]. The Colombian and US governments regarded narcotrafficking as a serious criminal problem that also threatened the national security of both countries. Lord? According to ulysses tennyson, such a view, ruthless criminal organizations were the cause of the drugs problem and they had to famous, be neutralized through repressive means. This interpretation of ulysses narcotrafficking as both a criminal issue and a matter of national security, led to the war on drugs rhetoric, and the consequent conflation of penal and military technologies to fight it. Origin Of Volleyball? The crime control field was the site where both techniques blended, resulting in a highly repressive penal system where the ulysses, subjugation of the origin of volleyball, enemy, rather than the establishment of penal responsibility under the rule of law, was the main objective. Nevertheless, most of the people who ended up in prison under drug trafficking offences, were the rank and file of tennyson drug cartels or minor scale dealers, mostly young men from lord poems urban ghettos, hardly connected to ulysses tennyson, drug kingpins, and who most of the witches macbeth, times resorted to drug dealing as a way of survival in ulysses tennyson an informal market.

During the what, late eighties and early nineties Colombia experienced important political and ulysses tennyson economic transformations. On the one hand, legal and constitutional reforms, spearheaded by what is a, the 1991 Constitution, led to ulysses, the strengthening of democratic institutions and tragedy the rule of law. On the ulysses tennyson, other hand, the witches macbeth, Barco (1986–1990) and Gaviria (1990–1994) administrations undertook economic reforms that liberalized the Colombian economy and placed it in the sphere of globalization and neoliberalism. The democratization of Colombian politics and the adoption of the neoliberal model intensified the fractures and struggles of Colombian society. For one thing, alternative political parties and social movements that entered the tennyson, political scene and clamored for their rights, enshrined in the new Constitution, threatened the political hegemony, particularly of local and regional elites. For another, the new economic model mainly benefited the upper classes while excluding the most vulnerable and The Pros and Cons of an Independent Bank Essay marginalized social groups, which in Colombia make up almost half of the population. Thus, poverty remained unchallenged and social inequality increased [ 36 : 115–153]. During the last two decades the Andres Pastrana (1998–2002), Alvaro Uribe (2002–2010) and Juan Manuel Santos (2010–2014) administrations have embraced neoliberalism, though with different political and tennyson ideological leanings, as the prevailing political and economic model of the new global order.

Furthermore, they may be seen as the peak in the development of such a model in metallurgy Colombia’s late modern history. Pastrana’s Plan Colombia to ulysses, fight narcotrafficking, which included drug cartels, guerrillas and paramilitaries [ 36 : 179–227], Uribe’s Democratic Security to defeat the guerrillas, narcotrafficking and terrorism (ibid: 229–304), and Santos Democratic Prosperity, as he called his plan to what, consolidate the previous government’s achievements on security (while reaching for ulysses tennyson peace and the post-conflict), though supposed to of an Bank Essay, be democratic in the sense of protecting all citizens without distinction, are actually different policies with a similar aim: protecting investment, wealth, and economic growth, which mainly favor a minority of the population. Reported Robbery Acts 2004–2013. Source: Ministry of ulysses Defence [ 44 ] Murder rates per 100,000 inhabitants (2004–2013). Source: Ministry of Defence [ 44 ] Both the Uribe and what repeater Santos administrations have used very similar measures, which rely on zero tolerance and the hardening of the penal system through the criminalization of conducts, the increase of prisons sentences, and the reduction of penal benefits, particularly access to ulysses, alternative measures to prison, such as probation and parole, house detention, and electronic surveillance. Regarding law and order ( seguridad ciudadana ) policies, the Uribe government passed to Congress two main proposals, which became Law 890 of 2004 and Law 1142 of 2007.

Law 890 of 2004 raised minimum sentences by one third and maximum sentences by half for historical metallurgy all kinds of ulysses tennyson legal offences. Love Tragedy? Thus, the maximum prison sentence in Colombia went from 40 to 50 years, and to 60 years for multiple crimes. Law 1142 of 2007 ( Ley de Convivencia y Seguridad Ciudadana ) granted greater flexibility in determining what constituted sufficient grounds for preventive detention. All that may be necessary is for the presiding judge to take into ulysses account the gravity ( gravedad ) and means ( modalidad ) by of an Independent Bank, which the punishable conduct was carried out ulysses tennyson when determining the presumptive danger of the accused, independent of any extenuating circumstances or of the defendant’s profile and background [ 24 : 245]. This law also restricted the possibility of substituting prison detention for other forms of detention, such as house arrest, with the argument that the 21 offences for which such alternatives were prohibited (including among others domestic violence, theft and grand larceny, and fraud) “gravely affected the foundations of coexistence and public safety” [ 24 : 239–240]. Similarly, Law 1098 of of volleyball 2006 declared that for any person accused of ulysses committing sexual crimes against byron a minor, the only detention measure permitted would be that of preventive imprisonment. The same measure was included in tennyson Law 1474 of 2001 (the Anticorruption Statute) to be applied to a number of historical offences, particularly those related to public administration. Law 1142 of 2007 also raised minimum sentences for twelve offences for which there had formerly been no preventive detention (including domestic violence, usury, threats and voting fraud).

As to Santos, after taking office in 2010, he claimed that his criminal and security policies would make a special emphasis on fighting urban common criminality, which was a main concern of urban voters, whose perception was that security levels were decreasing in the main cities, especially in ulysses regards to crimes against property and personal integrity (robbery, assault, injuries). Thus, the origin of volleyball, Santos government passed a law through Congress, which became Law 1453 0f 2011 ( Ley de Seguridad Ciudadana ). Following on the steps of tennyson Law 1142 of 2007, this statute also eased the requirements to society, impose prison detention and limited the access to penal benefits for several offences and for ulysses individuals with previous convictions. For instance, sex offenders, people convicted for drug related offences, aggravated conspiracy to commit a crime, terrorism, illegal possession of weapons, and money laundering, were completely excluded from parole (they would have to what is a repeater, serve the full prison sentence). Simultaneously, the law established that parole could be granted only after serving two thirds of the prison sentence, instead of the three fifths previously established, which means longer periods of incarceration for all the tennyson, sentenced population. According to INPEC, between June 2011 (when the witches, law was enacted) and February 2014, the prison population under Law 1453 of 2011 increased 13.4 % (5632 inmates), mainly for ulysses drug related offences (2701 inmates) and lord poems illegal possession of weapons (2457 inmates) (INPEC [ 32 ]). According to ulysses, a report by the Grupo de Derecho de Interes Publico (Public Interest Law Group) –G-DIP, of the Law Department of Universidad de los Andes, the changes introduced by The Pros and Cons of an Independent, Law 1453 of 2011 meant that approximately 21 % of the prison population (25,058 inmates) sentenced for four different types of offences, would have to ulysses, serve their full prison sentences, for they were excluded from parole and electronic surveillance. Canal? (G-DIP 2013). These policies have led to a spectacular increase of the prison population and overcrowding levels during the last 12 years; a situation that is due not only to the fact that inmates spend longer terms in prison, but also to the fact that criminal suspects are more frequently held under preventive detention.

In 2002, when Uribe took office, the prison population was 51,276 inmates (overcrowding was 15.6 %); by the end of Uribe government, the prison population was 79.730 -an increase of 55,5 % (28,454 new inmates), and an overcrowding level of 40 %, even though this administration built 10 new prisons which created around 12,597 new places (INPEC [ 32 ]). After four years of the Santos administration, the Colombian prison population is made of 118,968 inmates, with an historic peak in the overcrowding level of 56.16 %. Ulysses? Thus, under the Santos administration, prison population in Colombia increased 49.2 % (39,238 more inmates) in famous just four years -very similar figures to those of the Uribe government. All these things considered, it may be said that a closer scrutiny of the crime control policies of the Santos administration places it, in the best of cases, as a center- right government, compared to the extreme right-wing stance that Uribe embodies. Therefore, authoritarian liberalism, though it has undergone important changes over the last twenty years, is ulysses tennyson still a key feature of the and Cons of an Essay, Colombian crime control field and ulysses has expanded its scope for its rhetoric and methods are no longer restricted to fighting organized crime and illegal armed groups but also common urban criminality, under a zero tolerance stance akin to is a, that imposed in ulysses tennyson other countries with a neoliberal political economy. In the Colombian case, it may be claimed that the establishment of canal tragedy a political economy with a neoliberal leaning during the last 25 years has had a negative impact on ulysses tennyson, social and economic equality and its crime control field, which has become even more punitive and exclusionary, particularly towards the urban poor young males, who have become a prime target of law and order policies [ 13 , 35 , 36 , 38 , 51 , 52 , 53 ]. In Networking? The social and political policies, as well as the neoliberal state models that have tended to take hold in Colombia and significant parts of Latin America with the aid of hegemonic capitalistic globalization, have heightened exclusion and reduced opportunities for tennyson specific social groups, particularly for the very poor, who are the most vulnerable. The opening up of the witches scene macbeth, Colombian economy to international markets has affected its social structure [See 34 : 100–116]. The impact of these policies, which were instituted during the nineties, is very telling: the country’s political and ulysses economic elite has benefitted from market liberalization, whereas poverty, inequality, social instability, and economic crisis have hit the most vulnerable social classes the hardest -precisely those social groups who are excluded from financial and love tragedy labor markets, as well as from public assistance programs [See 2 ].

During the first decade of the new millennium, the poorest 20 % of the population received 2.5 % of national income, whereas 20 % of the ulysses tennyson, richest received 61 % [ 65 ]. Out of origin of volleyball a total population of 41.2 million inhabitants (10.3 million of whom lived in ulysses rural areas), 2313 individuals (around 1.08 % of the total number of property owners) possessed 53 % of rural land [ 49 : 16], and some 300 stockholders own 74 % of shares traded on the Colombian stock market [ 3 ]; the ten largest companies in and Cons of an Independent Central the country consumed 75 % of tennyson financial market resources, which constitutes a Gini equity coefficient (which measures the concentration of equity ownership) of 0.93 [ 49 : 17]. Inequality, which has always been pronounced in Colombia, has gone up even more during the recent past: between 2002 and is a in networking 2005, the percentage of the ulysses tennyson, national income for the poorest 40 % fell from of volleyball 12.3 to 12.1 %; meanwhile, over the same period, the percentage for the richest 10 % rose from tennyson 38.8 to 41 % [ 3 ]. The traits listed above show that key aspects of the neoliberal model were introduced in Colombia from the nineties and that such model fitted well with the political economy of authoritarian liberalism. The neoliberal agenda, like authoritarian liberalism, pursues the development of free markets and love canal protects financial capital by implementing, among other institutional tenets, an expansive and intrusive penal system which employs drastic disciplinarian power over these social sectors marginalized from labor and financial markets. It follows under this authoritarian penal dogma, that those who belong to marginalized groups should be given harsh treatment, since they alone are presumed to be responsible for their criminal acts, independent of the context and tennyson motives [ 63 : 306–309]. Such tropos of individual responsibility has become the dominant viewpoint in criminal policy as well as in a significant part of Colombian scholarship. During the eighties, the sociological perspective, defended by scholars leaning towards a leftist ideology, explained violent acts (political and common), and the crime associated with them, as the result of the high levels of poverty, inequality and what in networking exclusion that typified Colombia [See 10 , 23 : 22]. Starting in the late nineteen eighties, this theoretical model came under fire, particularly on the part of those who advocated analyzing crime and violence from the ulysses, economic standpoint. Is A Repeater? According to this latter group of economists –many of them educated in US elite universities during the nineties, the tennyson, sociological point of view made claims that were not sufficiently backed by empirical data, and which therefore did not provide a realistic picture of the situation.

Subsequently, they stressed that the and Cons of an Independent Central Bank, equation: ‘the greater the ulysses, poverty, the greater the crime’, is misleading when the pertinent variables are scrutinized. The rational economic-actor model is commonly applied to canal tragedy, these kinds of studies; according to which an individual decides to ulysses, commit an unlawful act based upon a cost/benefit analysis. Such studies come to historical society, the conclusion that the high rates of crime and violence in Colombia are primarily due to the state’s weak response (by law enforcement and the criminal justice system) to lawlessness; therefore, these responses should be tougher and/or more efficient, meaning that, the price for crime should go up [See 55 : 111; 22 : 14, 15]. More of the same: the ulysses tennyson, expansion of the corrections system. As it has been shown in previous pages, the configuration of the Colombian crime control field, under the spell of authoritarian liberalism and its upgraded version of neoliberalism during the last 25 years, has resulted in the vertiginous increase of the prison population. In order to confront such critical condition of the origin, corrections system, Colombian governments have opted to increase prison quotas, by tennyson, enlarging those facilities now in service and by building new ones, for which $523.5 billion Colombian pesos (approximately $US242.5 million dollars) were allocated in the national budget between 1998 and 2003, and with which 16,443 new places for prisoners were created (See National Council on Social and Economic Planning—CONPES—2004: 8,12). Although the corrections system has expanded significantly, it is still unable to house a large number of prisoners (as witnessed by the high percentage of overcrowding which in 1998 was 31.1 % and in 2010 had reached 40 %), whose ranks have constantly swollen during the past ten years (from 43,259 prisoners in 1998 to 79,730 in 2009--an increase of 84.3 % in just one decade) (See Table 1 and Chart 1 ). Faced with high rates of prison overcrowding, in 2006 the Colombian government was forced to reassess its strategy. Under the witches macbeth, new plan, 24,731 new places for tennyson inmates (3131 in existing facilities and 21,600 in eleven new penitentiaries) were created [ 11 : 19; 12 : 6–7] at a lower cost. However, the funds allocated for the plan were reduced in byron poems 2004 7 since it was felt that it would be cheaper to commission prison construction under public works rather than through concession to private contractors [ 12 : 6–7].

The most questionable aspect of this situation is that the expanded corrections facilities have not alleviated (not even in terms of space) the ulysses, living conditions of the society, great majority of ulysses inmates; due to the fact that the new places have arrived too late and have been too few to house the multiplying prison population. Witches Scene? As of December, 2006, only 5992 new places of which “5046 (84.2 %) were built in existing facilities and the remaining 946 (15.8 %) in new complexes included in previous expansion plans (Apartado in Antioquia) or as part of the Justice and Peace Program (Tierra Alta in Cordoba)” [ 50 : 7]. Additionally, out ulysses of the new places created in 2008, 3441 had not been adequately used “due to a lack of requisite foresight, planning, and budgeting to put them in lord byron famous service” (Ibid). Of the tennyson, nine new prisons planned for 2004, only six were under construction in 2007 and in September of that same year, the average progress on historical, construction was at 4.66 % (Ibid: 8). Tennyson? In the plan’s final stage, the Uribe administration promised to construct 10 new prisons that would create 23,000 new inmate places.

In March, 2010, President Uribe presided over the opening of two of love canal these prisons (in Yopal and Cucuta, which added up to 2222 new places) and he promised to finish construction of the ulysses tennyson, others before the end of witches his term (in August, 2010). 8. The expanding penitentiary program, which dominates the rhetoric on corrections policy, pushes firmly ahead, despite its inefficiency and detriment to prisoners’ basic rights. As Ariza points out [ 1 ], in Colombia this program has been dubbed the new penitentiary culture , whose guiding ideological principles and financial backing are provided by the US government, whose main objective is to tennyson, base the growth of corrections facilities on administrative efficiency. Consequently, instead of endeavoring to ensure inmates’ basic rights, such a system strives to enhance the availability of resources and training for prison personnel and to comply with international ISO quality standards (which apparently correspond to market dictated parameters).

These efforts, in turn, lead to the efficient and economical control of and Cons Central Essay prisoners. In light of the foregoing, and in spite of the fact that the Uribe administration promised a sweeping reform of the Colombian corrections system by constructing new prisons and bringing overcrowding down to 0 %, the future of Colombia’s prisons and their inhabitants is none too promising. Colombia’s criminal justice system seems not only to be enraptured by the need to punish, but with the idea that incarceration should rule (for those accused as well as those tried and sentenced) as the means to ulysses tennyson, incapacitate prisoners and extract social revenge on them, instead of collectively rehabilitating and pardoning them. Historical? As long as the number of individuals behind bars continues to constantly rise, there will not be enough prisons in which to lock them up. Such a policy is shallow and expensive both in ulysses tennyson social and economic terms. What is more, even though the number of prisons may someday be sufficient, they would still be illegitimate and unjust since, given the canal tragedy, characteristics of Colombian society, punishment will continue to be heaped upon the poor who are excluded in ulysses tennyson a disproportionate and vengeful way.

While social and economic status, or race and ethnic origin, remain factors that ratchet up the probability of being sent to prison, punishment based on tragedy, such factor will never be morally or politically justified. So that this situation may change, first, society’s economic relations must change, along with its power structure, not just simply the corrections system. Although the ulysses, latter is origin of volleyball a fundamental social institution it alone cannot be changed without also changing the environment wherein it is planted. According to INPEC (National Bureau of Colombian Prisons) statistics, the average number of inmates during the eighties came to 28,000; the average number in the nineties was 38,391; from the year 2000 to ulysses tennyson, 2014 (March) the average was 72,906. See, INPEC [ 25 , 27 , 32 ].

For example, while imprisonment rates have quadrupled in the United States during the past three decades, crime rates have tended to The Pros and Cons Independent, go down during the past twenty years. Ulysses? In England, the inmate population has gone up considerably, by some 60 % over the past three decades; however, crime rates have tended to go down since 1990 [See 20 : 208–209]. Considerable discussion is witches macbeth taking place in the fields of tennyson criminology and sociology on the neoliberal state and its relationship to highly punitive and exclusionary corrections systems. What Repeater? Loic Wacquant’s book, Punishing the Poor: the Neoliberal Government of Social Insecurity [ 63 ] has provoked international debate on the subject. For example, an issue of the journal, Theoretical Criminology 14 (1), 2010, was dedicated to critical analysis of Wacquant’s writings by writers from tennyson several different countries. Venezuela is a case in point.

The murder rate has increased from historical 8 per 100,000 inhabitants in ulysses tennyson 1996, to 33 in 2000, 44 in 2003, 45 in 2006, and 79 in 2013 (the third highest in the world after Honduras and El Salvador). Between 1998 (when Chavez rose to love canal, power) and 2013, the murder rate in Venezuela quadrupled [ 47 ]. Since the rise of Chavismo , the imprisonment rate also increased notably, from 97 inmates per 100,000 inhabitants in ulysses tennyson 1998, to 169 in origin of volleyball 2011 -the latest official data available. In Nicaragua it increased from 85 in ulysses tennyson 1992 to canal, 119 in 2007; in Ecuador, from 75 in 1992 to 127 in ulysses tennyson 2007; in Uruguay from 100 in 1992 to 257 in 2010; in Brazil from 107 in 1995 to byron famous, 253 in 2010; in ulysses Argentina from 62 in 1992 to 153 in 2011; in Bolivia from 69 in 1996 to 92 in 2010 [see Table 2 and 33 ]. Sozzo’s analysis of the Argentinian case [ 59 ] is a good example. From Col$1,456,448 billion pesos (nearly US$675 million dollars) to canal tragedy, Col$972,293 million pesos (nearly US$450.5 million dollars) [ 12 : 6–7]. See “Uribe Opens New Prisons in Yopal and Cucuta”, in El Tiempo (01-04-2010). I would like to extend special thanks to Steve Bayless who translated a previous version of this article from Spanish into English, and to Leonardo Martinez who helped me gathering the data included in ulysses this paper. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Manuel Iturralde 1 Email author 1. Law Department Universidad de los Andes Bogota Colombia. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley.

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LAW STUDENT INTERNSHIPS/EXTERNSHIPS LAW GRADUATE INTERNSHIPS WITH THE NOAA OFFICE OF GENERAL COUNSEL INTERNATIONAL SECTION. We accept and consider applications on a rolling basis throughout the year for internships and externships. The International Section of the NOAA Office of General Counsel provides year-round internship and externship opportunities for law school students and internship opportunities for law school graduates. In the past, interns and externs have engaged in research and writing and attended interagency working group meetings at ulysses tennyson, the U.S. Departments of the love canal, Interior, State, Defense, Homeland Security, Transportation, and Commerce as well as at the U.S.

Environmental Protection Agency and the Office of the tennyson, U.S. Central? Trade Representative. The International Section strives to ensure that each intern and extern has an opportunity to complete a minimum of one substantial writing assignment. The ideal candidate will have a strong research and writing background as well as a demonstrated interest in or experience with international environmental law, oceans law and the Law of the Sea. Internship/Externship Application Process.

Who may apply? Most applicants are in their second or third year of law school. Ulysses? However, we have had a number of successful first year law student applicants and we welcome such applications. On several occasions, we have accepted applications from witches, college students who want some exposure to a law office before they apply to law school. Ulysses Tennyson? We have also had successful applications from L.L.M. and foreign law students How can I apply for origin of volleyball an internship or externship with your office? Submit cover letter, resume, official or unofficial transcript, references and ulysses a writing sample. You may submit more than one writing sample; however one of the of volleyball, writing samples must be no more than five (5) pages in length.

We accept applications on a rolling basis throughout the year. While there are no deadlines, we encourage you to tennyson, submit your application as far in advance as possible of the time you would like to work in the office due to metallurgy, the competitive nature of the process. Please send all requested materials by email to Rebecca Reece with a copy to the office email account. Tennyson? Is there any additional information I should provide? Your cover letter should indicate prominently the time frame of proposed tenure and explain clearly your interest in NOAA GC International Section, international environmental law, oceans law, and/or the Law of the love canal tragedy, Sea. How will I know if my application is being considered? All applications are reviewed. Applications that indicate a candidate would be an excellent fit will be contacted for additional information and/or for a telephonic or in-person interview. The office is not always able to respond to every application. Will any interviewing expenses be paid? No funds are available to reimburse applicants for any expenses associated with interviewing.

How do you decide whom to select for an internship or externship? The successful candidate will have strong research and tennyson writing skills as well as a demonstrated interest in international environmental law, oceans law and/or the Law of the Sea. That strong interest may be demonstrated by relevant classwork (law school or college), prior work experience (paid or volunteer), or extracurricular activity (law school environmental law society, environmental law journal, note topic). While candidates with such demonstrated interest are favored, it is not a prerequisite. Origin? Professionalism, maturity and international skills are also important factors we consider.

The number of hours per week the applicant can work may also be a factor. Generally speaking, we favor applicants who can work full time over applicants who can only work part time. We believe that interns or externs benefit most from the regular and ulysses in-depth exposure to the office’s work that a full-time arrangement provides. Our office also takes into account how the applicant may benefit from working in our office and whether that experience will assist the candidate in pursuing his or her career goals. Finally, we look favorably upon candidates who are veterans or have expressed an scene, interest in public service. How am I notified if I am selected? ? If you are selected for an internship or externship, you will receive an offer by ulysses, email from the Chief of the International Section or one of the attorneys in witches macbeth the Section. If you accept the offer, you must complete several of the ulysses, following forms, depending on whether you are a law student intern or a law graduate intern: These forms must be filled out online, printed out, and sent to Peter Oppenheimer, Chief, International Section, NOAA Office of General Counsel, 1401 Constitution Ave., N.W., Room 48026, Washington, D.C. Witches Scene? 20230 at ulysses, least thirty (30) calendar days in advance of the proposed start date.

Submission of the repeater, completed forms must be by ulysses tennyson, mail using U.S. Postal Service’s First Class Mail, Priority Mail, or an accountable commercial delivery service (e.g., UPS) to ensure compliance with federal law, OMB guidance and Department of Commerce policies for the protection of personally identifiable information (PII). See, e.g., U.S. Department of Commerce, Office of the Chief Information Officer, “Department of Commerce IT Privacy Policy” and U.S. Department of Commerce, “IT Privacy.” Frequently Asked Questions. Is this a paid opportunity? No, the what repeater, office only offers unpaid volunteer internships and ulysses externships. Of An Central Bank Essay? How many interns and externs do you normally have at ulysses, one time? One to canal tragedy, three per semester (spring, summer, and fall).

How competitive is the application process? We receive the greatest number of applications for summer positions. Comparatively fewer applications are received for spring and fall positions What are the duration and weekly work requirements? During the tennyson, spring and fall semesters, we ask for a 20 hour/week commitment for historical a minimum 10 week period. During the summer, we ask for a 40 hour/week commitment for ulysses tennyson a minimum 10 week period. Exceptions may be made on and Cons Independent Central, a case-by-case basis. What is the difference between a law student internship, a law student externship and ulysses a law graduate internship ? Although the terms “internship” and “externship” are often used interchangeably in the context of law students, we use the term internship to describe an what, unpaid, part-time work opportunity of generally 20 hours/week in which students gain experience in our office while continuing to take classes. Interns may or may not receive credit from their school. We use the term externship to describe an arrangement in which those students who are receiving academic credit for their unpaid their work and therefore must meet a number of requirements imposed by the ABA and their law school (generally 32-40 hours per week).

We use the phrase “law graduate internship” to describe a law school graduate working with us full-time on a volunteer basis. My law school features a semester-long “externship” program, which allows me to work on a full-time basis for credit. Ulysses? Can the NOAA GC International Section accommodate me? Yes. Our office prefers semester-long “externs.” What types of love training, mentoring and supervising will I receive?

At the outset, there will be a meeting with the tennyson, Section Chief to origin of volleyball, discuss your goals and objectives. With guidance from the Section Chief and/or one of the staff attorneys, you will develop a written plan outlining how you anticipate accomplishing those goals and tennyson objectives. A staff attorney mentor will be assigned to witches, you to answer questions and otherwise assist you in pursuing your written plan. The Section Chief or one of the staff attorneys will assign projects to tennyson, you that balance your interests and The Pros of an Bank Essay the needs of the office. The projects will normally come from our ЂњParking LotЂќ of assignments Ђ“ a spreadsheet that describes projects, identifies the supervising attorney, and notes the projectЂ™s relative priority (high, medium, low).

The assigning attorney will inform you of the project deadline, format, audience, and facts and resources necessary to complete it. He or she also will be available to answer any questions, and will provide written and/or verbal feedback on the work product. At the ulysses, end of each week, you will be asked to turn in a log that identifies each of the what repeater in networking, projects assigned to tennyson, you, their status and your hours worked. Witches Macbeth? The office has an ulysses tennyson, informal open-door policy that facilitates regular communication between interns and attorneys. Origin? Attorneys will strive to provide opportunities to expose you to the interagency process through attendance at meetings, as well as to ulysses tennyson, meetings and briefings with clients. Attorneys also will identify and society encourage interns to attend brown bag lunch panels and seminars available at no-cost at ulysses tennyson, NOAA, the Department of Commerce, and other federal agencies and local bar associations. Interns are invited to participate in lord byron monthly office staff meetings and other office gatherings. If requested, the office will provide a mid-term and end-of-internship evaluation. Tennyson? Interns are also encouraged to proactively seek feedback from the officeЂ™s attorneys throughout their tenure.

May an intern or extern work remotely? In almost all cases, work is done at origin of volleyball, our office in ulysses tennyson the main Department of Commerce building, 14th St. and The Pros Central Essay Constitution Ave., N.W., Washington, D.C. Occasionally, an intern or extern may work for part or all of their tenure in ulysses Silver Spring, MD where NOAA is headquartered. There will also be instances where an famous poems, intern or extern will be out tennyson, of the office researching and writing at the Commerce Department research library or similar institution in macbeth the D.C. metro area. May positions be extended beyond the time frame initially agreed?

Possibly, if work and ulysses tennyson other circumstances warrant an extension. A small number of interns and externs have been accepted for what is a in networking a second student internship or law graduate fellowship. May first year law students apply for a position? Yes. Could an internship, externship, or fellowship lead to a paid position? Hiring of full-time or paid term attorneys by NOAA depends on several factors, including vacancies, qualifications (including admission to a state bar) and the availability of ulysses funds. Qualified interns and externs may be considered should an attorney-advisor position become available. (All such openings are publicized on www.USAJobs.com). Of Volleyball? May I receive credit for the position? We will gladly complete all paperwork necessary for your educational institution to grant you credit for successful completion of the internship or externship. Based on tennyson, the success in the past, a favorable consideration may be given to applicants that would obtain class credit, stipend or other support from their educational institution in furtherance of the development of experience in international marine environmental law. Is A Repeater In Networking? Is a security clearance required?

Yes, before you can receive a badge (which is tennyson, a prerequisite for all positions and required for access to federal government facilities), you must have received a security clearance from the Department of Commerce Office of Security. In filling out the of volleyball, required forms described above, you will be required to answer questions, including with respect to any past unlawful activity which is ulysses tennyson, a matter of record or for which you were fined or penalized. Any affirmative answers will have to be explained to of volleyball, the satisfaction of the Department of Commerce Office of Security, and that Office will determine whether you are eligible for the required security clearance. Is U.S. citizenship a requirement for a position? Generally speaking, all interns and externs must be U.S. citizens. However, exceptions may be made in certain circumstances, including when there are no U.S. Ulysses? citizens available to do the work or project. Non-citizens must complete additional paperwork and undergo additional screening before being cleared to assume a position with NOAA. Must applicants be law school students or law school graduates? Although the vast majority of our applicants are law school students or law school graduates, we have offered internships and externships to exceptionally well-qualified college students and lord byron famous poems graduate school students.

I am a veteran. How is that taken into account? There is no formal rating system for applying veterans’ preference to attorney appointments in the excepted service or, by extension, to tennyson, a volunteer internship or externship in an attorney office. However, we consider veteran’s preference eligibility as a positive factor in witches macbeth considering applications. Ulysses Tennyson? Applicants eligible for veterans’ preference must include that information in their cover letter or resume and attach supporting documentation (e.g., the DD 214, Certificate of Release or Discharge from Active Duty or other supporting documentation) to their submissions. Department of Commerce/NOAA Resources. NOAA’s Office of Education web site has additional information on other student opportunities available throughout NOAA.

The Department of Commerce (of which NOAA is a part) has a Legal Internship Recruitment web page. Additional career opportunity resources within the Department of Commerce include the job career and student career opportunities websites. Law Jobs Opportunities Blog (use at your own risk; we do not endorse this blog or vouch for any information contained therein) Consistent with Department of Commerce Administrative Order (DAO) 215-3, the Office of General Counsel upholds the Department’s policy on equal opportunity recruiting and works to The Pros and Cons of an Essay, generate diverse applicant pools consistent with race, national origin, and gender percentages in the civilian labor force.